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Animal Nutrition

Animal Nutrition

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Carbohydrates
are the most abundant of the four major classes of biomolecules. They fill numerous roles in living things, such as thestorage and transport of energy (e.g., starch, glycogen) and structural components (e.g., cellulose in plants and chitin in arthropods). Inaddition, carbohydrates and their derivatives play major roles in the working process of the immune system, fertilization, pathogenesis, blood clotting, and development.Carbohydrates are simple organic compounds that are aldehydes or ketones with many hydroxyl groups added, usually one on eachcarbon atom that is not part of the aldehyde or ketone functional group. The basic carbohydrate units are called monosaccharides;examples are glucose, galactose, and fructose. The general stoichiometric formula of an unmodified monosaccharide is (C·H2O)n,where n is any number of three or greater; however, not all carbohydrates conform to this precise stoichiometric definition (e.g.,uronic acids, deoxy-sugars such as fucose), nor are all chemicals that do conform to this definition automatically classified ascarbohydrates.
Monosaccharides
(from Greek monos: single, sacchar: sugar) are the most basic unit of carbohydrates. They are the simplest form of sugar and are usually colorless, water-soluble, crystalline solids. Some monosaccharides have a sweet taste. Examples of monosaccharides include glucose (dextrose), fructose (levulose), galactose, xylose and ribose. Monosaccharides are the building blocks of disaccharides such as sucrose and polysaccharides (such as cellulose and starch). Further, each carbon atom that supports ahydroxyl group (except for the first and last) is chiral, giving rise to a number of isomeric forms all with the same chemical formula.For instance, galactose and glucose are both aldohexoses, but have different chemical and physical properties.Monosaccharides are the simplest carbohydrates in that they cannot be hydrolyzed to smaller carbohydrates. They are aldehydes or ketones with two or more hydroxyl groups. The general chemical formula of an unmodified monosaccharide is (C•H2O)n, literally a"carbon hydrate." Monosaccharides are important fuel molecules as well as building blocks for nucleic acids. The smallestmonosaccharides, for which n = 3, are dihydroxyacetone and D- and L-glyceraldehyde.A
disaccharide
is the carbohydrate formed when two monosaccharides undergo a condensation reaction which involves theelimination of a small molecule, such as water, from the functional groups only. Like monosaccharides, disaccharides also dissolve inwater, taste sweet and are called sugars.Two joined monosaccharides are called a disaccharide and these are the simplest polysaccharides. Examples include sucrose andlactose. They are composed of two monosaccharide units bound together by a covalent bond known as a glycosidic linkage formed viaa dehydration reaction, resulting in the loss of a hydrogen atom from one monosaccharide and a hydroxyl group from the other. Theformula of unmodified disaccharides is C12H22O11. Although there are numerous kinds of disaccharides, a handful of disaccharidesare particularly notable.Sucrose, pictured to the right, is the most abundant disaccharide, and the main form in which carbohydrates are transported in plants.It is composed of one D-glucose molecule and one D-fructose molecule. The systematic name for sucrose, O-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-D-fructofuranoside, indicates four things:* Its monosaccharides: glucose and fructose* Their ring types: glucose is a pyranose, and fructose is a furanose* How they are linked together: the oxygen on carbon number 1 (C1) of α-D-glucose is linked to the C2 of D-fructose.* The -oside suffix indicates that the anomeric carbon of both monosaccharides participates in the glycosidic bond.Lactose, a disaccharide composed of one D-galactose molecule and one D-glucose molecule, occurs naturally in mammalian milk.The systematic name for lactose is O-β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1→4)-D-glucopyranose. Other notable disaccharides include maltose(two D-glucoses linked α-1,4) and cellulobiose (two D-glucoses linked β-1,4).
Oligosaccharides and polysaccharides
are composed of longer chains of monosaccharide units bound together by glycosidic bonds.The distinction between the two is based upon the number of monosaccharide units present in the chain. Oligosaccharides typicallycontain between two and nine monosaccharide units, and polysaccharides contain greater than ten monosaccharide units. Definitionsof how large a carbohydrate must be to fall into each category vary according to personal opinion. Examples of oligosaccharidesinclude the disaccharides mentioned above, the trisaccharide raffinose and the tetrasaccharide stachyose.Oligosaccharides are found as a common form of protein posttranslational modification. Such posttranslational modifications includethe Lewis and ABO oligosaccharides responsible for blood group classifications and so of tissue incompatibilities, the alpha-Galepitope responsible for hyperacute rejection in xenotransplanation, and O-GlcNAc modifications.Polysaccharides represent an important class of biological polymers. Their function in living organisms is usually either structure- or storage-related. Starch (a polymer of glucose) is used as a storage polysaccharide in plants, being found in the form of both amyloseand the branched amylopectin. In animals, the structurally-similar glucose polymer is the more densely-branched glycogen, sometimescalled 'animal starch'. Glycogen's properties allow it to be metabolized more quickly, which suits the active lives of moving animals.
 
Cellulose and chitin are examples of structural polysaccharides. Cellulose is used in the cell walls of plants and other organisms, andis claimed to be the most abundant organic molecule on earth. It has many uses such as a significant role in the paper and textileindustries, and is used as a feedstock for the production of rayon (via the viscose process), cellulose acetate, celluloid, andnitrocellulose. Chitin has a similar structure, but has nitrogen-containing side branches, increasing its strength. It is found in arthropodexoskeletons and in the cell walls of some fungi. It also has multiple uses, including surgical threads.Other polysaccharides include callose or laminarin, chrysolaminarin, xylan, mannan, fucoidan, and galactomannan.
STORAGE POLYSACCHARIDEStarches
are glucose polymers in which glucopyranose units are bonded by alpha-linkages. It is made up of a mixture of Amylose(15–20%) and Amylopectin (80–85%). Amylose consists of a linear chain of several hundred glucose molecules and Amylopectin is a branched molecule made of several thousand glucose units (every chain 24–30 glucose unit). Starches are insoluble in water. They can be digested by hydrolysis, catalyzed by enzymes called amylases, which can break the alpha-linkages (glycosidic bonds). Humans andother animals have amylases, so they can digest starches. Potato, rice, wheat, and maize are major sources of starch in the human diet.The formation of starches are the way that plants store glucose.
Glycogen
is a polysaccharide that is found in animals and is composed of a branched chain of glucose residues. It is stored in liver andmuscles.
Glucose
(Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar) also known as grape sugar, blood sugar, or corn sugar, is a very importantcarbohydrate in biology. The living cell uses it as a source of energy and metabolic intermediate. Glucose is one of the main productsof photosynthesis and starts cellular respiration in both prokaryotes (bacteria and archaea) and eukaryotes (animals, plants, fungi, and protists).The name "glucose" comes from the Greek word glukus (γλυκύς), meaning "sweet", and the suffix "-ose," which denotes a sugar.Two stereoisomers of the aldohexose sugars are known as glucose, only one of which (D-glucose) is biologically active. This form (D-glucose) is often referred to as dextrose monohydrate, or, especially in the food industry, simply dextrose (from dextrorotatoryglucose[2]). This article deals with the D-form of glucose. The mirror-image of the molecule, L-glucose, cannot be metabolized bycells in the biochemical process known as glycolysis.Glucose (C6H12O6) contains six carbon atoms, one of which is part of an aldehyde group. Therefore glucose is an aldohexose. Insolution, the glucose molecule can exist in an open-chain (acyclic) form and a ring (cyclic) form (in equilibrium). The cyclic form isthe result of a covalent bond between the aldehyde C atom and the C-5 hydroxyl group to form a six-membered cyclic hemiacetal. At pH 7 the cyclic form is predominant. In the solid phase, glucose assumes the cyclic form. Because the ring contains five carbon atomsand one oxygen atom (like pyran), the cyclic form of glucose is also referred to as glucopyranose. In this ring, each carbon is linked toa hydroxyl side group with the exception of the fifth atom, which links to a sixth carbon atom outside the ring, forming a CH2OHgroup. Glucose is commonly available in the form of a white powder or as a solid crystal. It can also be dissolved in water as anaqueous solution. Its solubility level is very high.
Fructose
(C6H12O6) (also levulose) is a simple monosaccharide found in many foods. It is a white solid that dissolves readily inwater. Honey, tree fruits, berries, melons, and some root vegetables, contain significant amounts of the fructose derivative sucrose(table sugar). Sucrose is a disaccharide derived from the condensation of glucose and fructose.
Galactose
(C6H12O6) (Gal) is a type of sugar which is less sweet than glucose. It is considered a nutritive sweetener because it hasfood energy. Its name comes from the Ancient Greek word for milk, γάλακτος (galaktos).Galactan is a polymer of the sugar galactose. It is found in hemicellulose and can be converted to galactose by hydrolysis. Galactosesolubility in water is 68.30 grams per 100 grams of water at 20–25°C.It is found in dairy products, in sugar beets and other gums and mucilages.It is also synthesized by the body, where it forms part of glycolipids and glycoproteins in several tissues.
Sucrose,
commonly called table sugar, is a disaccharide of glucose and fructose with the molecular formula C12H22O11. This white,odorless, crystalline powder has a pleasing, sweet taste. It is best known for its role in human nutrition. It is formed by plants but not by other organisms.Sugar forms a major element in confectionery and in desserts. Cooks use it as a food preservative as well as for sweetening.

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