Cellulose and chitin are examples of structural polysaccharides. Cellulose is used in the cell walls of plants and other organisms, andis claimed to be the most abundant organic molecule on earth. It has many uses such as a significant role in the paper and textileindustries, and is used as a feedstock for the production of rayon (via the viscose process), cellulose acetate, celluloid, andnitrocellulose. Chitin has a similar structure, but has nitrogen-containing side branches, increasing its strength. It is found in arthropodexoskeletons and in the cell walls of some fungi. It also has multiple uses, including surgical threads.Other polysaccharides include callose or laminarin, chrysolaminarin, xylan, mannan, fucoidan, and galactomannan.
are glucose polymers in which glucopyranose units are bonded by alpha-linkages. It is made up of a mixture of Amylose(15–20%) and Amylopectin (80–85%). Amylose consists of a linear chain of several hundred glucose molecules and Amylopectin is a branched molecule made of several thousand glucose units (every chain 24–30 glucose unit). Starches are insoluble in water. They can be digested by hydrolysis, catalyzed by enzymes called amylases, which can break the alpha-linkages (glycosidic bonds). Humans andother animals have amylases, so they can digest starches. Potato, rice, wheat, and maize are major sources of starch in the human diet.The formation of starches are the way that plants store glucose.
is a polysaccharide that is found in animals and is composed of a branched chain of glucose residues. It is stored in liver andmuscles.
(Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar) also known as grape sugar, blood sugar, or corn sugar, is a very importantcarbohydrate in biology. The living cell uses it as a source of energy and metabolic intermediate. Glucose is one of the main productsof photosynthesis and starts cellular respiration in both prokaryotes (bacteria and archaea) and eukaryotes (animals, plants, fungi, and protists).The name "glucose" comes from the Greek word glukus (γλυκύς), meaning "sweet", and the suffix "-ose," which denotes a sugar.Two stereoisomers of the aldohexose sugars are known as glucose, only one of which (D-glucose) is biologically active. This form (D-glucose) is often referred to as dextrose monohydrate, or, especially in the food industry, simply dextrose (from dextrorotatoryglucose). This article deals with the D-form of glucose. The mirror-image of the molecule, L-glucose, cannot be metabolized bycells in the biochemical process known as glycolysis.Glucose (C6H12O6) contains six carbon atoms, one of which is part of an aldehyde group. Therefore glucose is an aldohexose. Insolution, the glucose molecule can exist in an open-chain (acyclic) form and a ring (cyclic) form (in equilibrium). The cyclic form isthe result of a covalent bond between the aldehyde C atom and the C-5 hydroxyl group to form a six-membered cyclic hemiacetal. At pH 7 the cyclic form is predominant. In the solid phase, glucose assumes the cyclic form. Because the ring contains five carbon atomsand one oxygen atom (like pyran), the cyclic form of glucose is also referred to as glucopyranose. In this ring, each carbon is linked toa hydroxyl side group with the exception of the fifth atom, which links to a sixth carbon atom outside the ring, forming a CH2OHgroup. Glucose is commonly available in the form of a white powder or as a solid crystal. It can also be dissolved in water as anaqueous solution. Its solubility level is very high.
(C6H12O6) (also levulose) is a simple monosaccharide found in many foods. It is a white solid that dissolves readily inwater. Honey, tree fruits, berries, melons, and some root vegetables, contain significant amounts of the fructose derivative sucrose(table sugar). Sucrose is a disaccharide derived from the condensation of glucose and fructose.
(C6H12O6) (Gal) is a type of sugar which is less sweet than glucose. It is considered a nutritive sweetener because it hasfood energy. Its name comes from the Ancient Greek word for milk, γάλακτος (galaktos).Galactan is a polymer of the sugar galactose. It is found in hemicellulose and can be converted to galactose by hydrolysis. Galactosesolubility in water is 68.30 grams per 100 grams of water at 20–25°C.It is found in dairy products, in sugar beets and other gums and mucilages.It is also synthesized by the body, where it forms part of glycolipids and glycoproteins in several tissues.
commonly called table sugar, is a disaccharide of glucose and fructose with the molecular formula C12H22O11. This white,odorless, crystalline powder has a pleasing, sweet taste. It is best known for its role in human nutrition. It is formed by plants but not by other organisms.Sugar forms a major element in confectionery and in desserts. Cooks use it as a food preservative as well as for sweetening.