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Famous Nematologists

Famous Nematologists

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FAMOUS NEMATOLOGISTS- Aldrovandus
found dead grasshoppers with worms emergingfrom their bodies (in De Animalibus Insectis 1623). He was theone who first used the word Vermes.
- Lister (1672)
described similar worms from a plant in hisgarden and compared his findings to that of Aldrovandus.
- Reaumur (1742)
described a worm that was undoubtedlySphaerularia bombi Dufour.
- Gould (1747)
graphically described the emergence of worms, probably mermithids, from ants.
- Carl von Linnaeus (1707-1778),
in his Systema Naturae,listed eight genera in the Vermes Intestini (1758). Two of thesewere truly parasitic worms, and the name of the third, Gordius,is associated with Linnaeus.
- A Lutheran pastor, J.A.E. Goeze (1731-1793),
was the firstto study nematodes seriously under the microscope anddescribed the vinegar eelworm (1782). He began to distinguish between the various kinds of worms. He also described theemergence of mermithids from soil following a heavy rain(1782).
- K. Rudolphi (1771-1832).
Rudolphi (1819) included 350species belonging to 11 genera in his works EntozoorumSynopsis. He also gave us the scientific name, Nematoidea.Often considered as
"Father of Helminthology".
He gave thename Nematoidea and produced a publication "EntozoorumSynopsis" with 350 species belonging to 11 genera
- Siebold (1804-1885)
studies introduced the concept of a lifecycle involving different kinds of hosts, with different ways of  penetration. With studies of Charvet (1834), Berthold (1843),and Dujardin (1842)], Siebold established the Gordiacea (in1843), he included mermithids in the group. Under the title"Ueber die Fadenwürmer der Insekten" in six works (1842-1858), von Siebold described and noted 233 nematode speciesfrom insects.-
Leuckart (1822-1898)
clarified Linnaeus' groups andestablished Vermes on a firm basis akin to that which we usetoday (Fig. 3). Rudolphi (1809), with true perspicacity,recognized Nematoidea as separate from Acanthocephalea,Trematodea, and Cestoidea, but Leuckart (1887) establishedthem as separate groups.
- Hope (1839)
wrote "The genera and species of insects infected by filariae" and complicated an already complex puzzleconcerning the identity of filariids, mermithids, and gordiids.
- Bremser (1824),
in his "New Atlas of Intestinal Worms"recorded Leblond's discussion of the finding of Audouin of mermithid worms in cockchafers in France. Another Frenchworker, Dujardin (1801-1860), was also a pioneer in the studyof nematodes in insects in France. He described Mermisnigrescens in 1842 and Mermis aquatilis in 1845.
- H. C. Bastian
(1837-1915, from England ) "Monograph of theAnguillulidae". He described 100 species of 30 genera in which23 genera were new. Illustrations were fairly good . He alsoreported different ways to collect nematode, from soil, planttissue, fresh and salt water (1866).- In Scotland in 1861,
Sir John Bulloch
described a worm thatwas obviously Sphaerularia bombi. In 1853, Meissner (1829-1905) described Mermis albicans in detail.- In 1851,
Karl Diesing (1800-1867)
published SystemaHelminthum, with 175 insect nematode records and involvingfive entomophilic genera. He listed 118 species of Gordius, 17of Mermis, including M. nigrescens and M. albicans andSphaerularia bombi as members of the same suborder and tribe. Not surprisingly, he considered Sphaerularia as a genusinquirendum. He assigned twelve species to Anguillula, nine of which had been assigned to Oxyuris spp., and found in intestinesof insects. Diesing recognized two genera, Gordius and Mermis, but kept them in the same suborder and tribe. It remained for Vejdovsky (1886) to separate Nematoda and Nematomorpha .-
Braun
in 1883 defined the Mermithidae, a definition that stillstands.-
Linstow (1842-1916)
, in Berlin, initiated a series of papers thatextended from 1860 to 1914. The admirable practice of namingnew genera by the use of a new prefix with -mermis originatedwith von Linstow and was first used in establishing the nameParamermis in 1898. In 1878 , he published a Compendium der Helminthologie, which lists several entomophilic nematodes.-
Schneider (1831-1890)
 provided one of the firstclassifications of nematodes (1866). He accepted only M.nigrescens and named a new species M. lacinulata. He separatedMermis from Gordius, but left Sphaerularia bombi with Gordiusin the same group. In the same monograph, he reveals hiscuriosity about S. bombi by including a chapter on itsdevelopment.
- O. Butschli
(1848-1920, from Germany?). The first detaileddescriptions of the morphological characters used in taxonomy(1873). Perhaps, credit for founding the science of nematologyshould belong to him .-
J. deMan
(1851-1930 from The Neitherlands) He suggestedthe ratio alpha, beta, and gamma equivalent to a, b, and c that weuse in taxonomy (1880).-
L. Oerley
. Excellent compilation of information on 202species of 27 nematode genera with description and illustrations(1881). Very good source for references.-
H. Micoletzky
. (1883-1929, from Austria) He brought together all published species in his publication "Die freilebende Erd- Nematoden". He gave extensive keys to species including their habitats. This remains as the most valuable source of referencesto papers published up to that time (1922)-
I. N. Filipjev
(1889-1940, from Russia) "Manual of Agricultural Helminthology". This is a most comprehensivecompendium of nematological information and is especially
 
valuable as a reference source for plant parasitic, free- living,and insect parasitic nematodes described up to that time (1934,English version, 1941).-
J. Leidy
He reported the first record of free living nematodesin America: Anguillula Longa n.s.. (1851), later becameTobrilus longus.
- Nathan Augustus Cobb
“Father of USA Nematology”1859-1932. Joined the US Department of Agriculturein 1907, and nematology began to develop in the Unite Statessince. Excellent book: "Contribution to a Science of  Nematology".
-Gotthold Steiner.
Began to work with Cobb from 1922. Heworked with all forms of nematodes. He took Cobb's positionafter 1932. His publication: "Plant parasitic nematodes thegrowers should know" (1949) is one of his good contribution.- Late in the nineteenth century, three Russian researchers,
Fedchenko
(1874, 1886),
Keppen
(1870, 1881, 1882), and
Radkevitch
(1869), gave us information on the entomophilicnematode fauna of that vast country. They created a traditionthat was carried into the next century by several researchers
. Dr.E.S. Kirjanova
(1900-1976) was one of these. She worked on plant, animal, and insect nematodes, but had a special interest inthe Nematomorpha. She supervised 25 dissertations, anddescribed 100 new species of nematodes and Nematomorpha.- Writing about insect nematologists in Russia,
Filipjev
must beconsidered as a prominent nematologist for nematologicalscience. When writing about Filipjev in the book "Plant andInsect Parasitic Nematodes", Nickle and Welch stated "If 
Rudolphi is recognized as the Father of Helminthology
, then
Ivan Nikolaevich Filipjev (1889-1940) may certainly benamed the father of Insect Nematology
. Not only did hecontribute indirectly through his work on nematodeclassification, but directly by bringing together the scatteredinformation on insect nematodes and incorporated his ownfindings into the synthesis. This formed the second section(about 80 pages) of a monograph published in Russian in 1934entitled "Nematodes that are harmful and useful in Agriculture"(Filipjev, 1934). Sections of this book were sent to Dr. Prof.J.H. Schuurmans-Stekhoven in Belgium who, as junior author,had the original Russian translated into French and then into the"American Language". This was published in Leiden under thetitle A Manual of Agriculture Helminthology in 1941.Also in 1934, Filipjev's "Classification of the free-livingnematodes and their relation to parasitic ones" was published inEnglish by the Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections (1934).Micoletzky (1925) and Cobb (1919) dropped their classificationin favor of Filipjev's. Western workers lost contact withFilipjev, and Kirjanova (1959) reported his death on October 22,1940.Filipjev's book on harmful and helpful helminths in agriculturecombines both plant and insect nematodes..Filipjev (1934) included those nematodes that have insects as"intermediate" hosts, the Spirurida and Filariida as well as Nematomorpha. The limits of a scientific field have no sharp boundaries. Poinar (1975), for example, includes the Spirurids,Filarids, and Nematomorphs, whereas this book combines theinsect-parasitic nematodes and the plant-parasitic nematodes."-
Hall
(1929) presented "Arthropods as an intermediate host for helminths" but regrettably had no references. Stiles' and Hassall's 1920 compendium of generic and specific names was praisedwhen published as much as it is esteemed today. It is a valuablevolume filled with names and dates, and remarkably free of errors. It is known as the Index Catalogue of Medical andVeterinary Zoology, Roundworms. Checklists of more recentdates include .-
Gilbert Fuchs
published a series of papers on bark beetlenematodes. The series extended from 1914 to 1938-
Yatsenkowsky
(1924) in the USSR provided evidence that asmall number of nematodes could cause castration of the bark  beetle hosts, and heavy infections killed the beetles.Polozhentsev and Negrobov (1967) listed 400 insect species thatare intermediate and definitive hosts for trematodes, cestodes,acanthocephalans, and nematodes. Another Russian worker,
Ipatyeva
(1970), provided a list of nematodes associated withthe Scarabaeoidea..- In the United States,
Cobb
(1927), from his experience withthree entomophilic nematodes, stressed the potential of nematodes in controlling insects. In Britain, Oldham (1933), onthe basis of his own experience and that of T. Goodey (1930) onTylenchinemaoscinellae, made the same recommendation. BothT. Goodey (1951) and J.B. Goodey (1963) produced systematic books containing nematodes associated with insects.- Detailed morphological and taxonomic studies were strongly pursued in the early decade of this century.
Dadai
(1911),
Daday
(1913), and
Hagmeier
(1912) established many of thetype species for future genera. Cobb (1859-1932), Steiner (1886-1961), and Christie (1889-1978), three Americans, establishedinsect nematology in North America in single, dual, and tripleauthorships in a long series of papers. Their " Agamermisdecaudata Cobb, Steiner, and Christie 1923; a nema parasite ingrasshoppers and other insects" is recognized as a classic, as pointed out by Gerald Thorne (1961).- Two other Americans,
Rudolf William Glaserand NormanR. Stoll
, had outstanding contributions. Glaser (1888-1947)was the first to mention the potential of Neoaplectana nematodesfor biological control, and gave much effort to mass-culturetechniques and was the first researcher to culture N. glaseri onan artificial culture in vitro. Norman Stoll (1892-1976)continued Glaser's work on vermiculture (Stoll, 1959).-
Steiner
described S. kraussei (1923) and S. glaseri (1929)-
P. Bovien
(1933, 1937, 1944), made three excellentcontributions, in one of them he described Neoaplectana affinisand N. bibionis . Also in this contribution, he suggested theinterrelationship among bacteria, nematodes, and insects (1937).-
S.R. Dutky and W.S. Hough
(1955), and the
Czechoslovakian, J. Weiser
(1955), simultaneously found anematode in the Codling moth that the former designated by itsaccession number, DD-136, and the latter named the worm Neoaplectana carpocapsae. Dutky, and later Weiser, confirmedthe presence of an associated bacterium.

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