FAMOUS NEMATOLOGISTS- Aldrovandus
found dead grasshoppers with worms emergingfrom their bodies (in De Animalibus Insectis 1623). He was theone who first used the word Vermes.
- Lister (1672)
described similar worms from a plant in hisgarden and compared his findings to that of Aldrovandus.
- Reaumur (1742)
described a worm that was undoubtedlySphaerularia bombi Dufour.
- Gould (1747)
graphically described the emergence of worms, probably mermithids, from ants.
- Carl von Linnaeus (1707-1778),
in his Systema Naturae,listed eight genera in the Vermes Intestini (1758). Two of thesewere truly parasitic worms, and the name of the third, Gordius,is associated with Linnaeus.
- A Lutheran pastor, J.A.E. Goeze (1731-1793),
was the firstto study nematodes seriously under the microscope anddescribed the vinegar eelworm (1782). He began to distinguish between the various kinds of worms. He also described theemergence of mermithids from soil following a heavy rain(1782).
- K. Rudolphi (1771-1832).
Rudolphi (1819) included 350species belonging to 11 genera in his works EntozoorumSynopsis. He also gave us the scientific name, Nematoidea.Often considered as
"Father of Helminthology".
He gave thename Nematoidea and produced a publication "EntozoorumSynopsis" with 350 species belonging to 11 genera
- Siebold (1804-1885)
studies introduced the concept of a lifecycle involving different kinds of hosts, with different ways of penetration. With studies of Charvet (1834), Berthold (1843),and Dujardin (1842)], Siebold established the Gordiacea (in1843), he included mermithids in the group. Under the title"Ueber die Fadenwürmer der Insekten" in six works (1842-1858), von Siebold described and noted 233 nematode speciesfrom insects.-
clarified Linnaeus' groups andestablished Vermes on a firm basis akin to that which we usetoday (Fig. 3). Rudolphi (1809), with true perspicacity,recognized Nematoidea as separate from Acanthocephalea,Trematodea, and Cestoidea, but Leuckart (1887) establishedthem as separate groups.
- Hope (1839)
wrote "The genera and species of insects infected by filariae" and complicated an already complex puzzleconcerning the identity of filariids, mermithids, and gordiids.
- Bremser (1824),
in his "New Atlas of Intestinal Worms"recorded Leblond's discussion of the finding of Audouin of mermithid worms in cockchafers in France. Another Frenchworker, Dujardin (1801-1860), was also a pioneer in the studyof nematodes in insects in France. He described Mermisnigrescens in 1842 and Mermis aquatilis in 1845.
- H. C. Bastian
(1837-1915, from England ) "Monograph of theAnguillulidae". He described 100 species of 30 genera in which23 genera were new. Illustrations were fairly good . He alsoreported different ways to collect nematode, from soil, planttissue, fresh and salt water (1866).- In Scotland in 1861,
Sir John Bulloch
described a worm thatwas obviously Sphaerularia bombi. In 1853, Meissner (1829-1905) described Mermis albicans in detail.- In 1851,
Karl Diesing (1800-1867)
published SystemaHelminthum, with 175 insect nematode records and involvingfive entomophilic genera. He listed 118 species of Gordius, 17of Mermis, including M. nigrescens and M. albicans andSphaerularia bombi as members of the same suborder and tribe. Not surprisingly, he considered Sphaerularia as a genusinquirendum. He assigned twelve species to Anguillula, nine of which had been assigned to Oxyuris spp., and found in intestinesof insects. Diesing recognized two genera, Gordius and Mermis, but kept them in the same suborder and tribe. It remained for Vejdovsky (1886) to separate Nematoda and Nematomorpha .-
in 1883 defined the Mermithidae, a definition that stillstands.-
, in Berlin, initiated a series of papers thatextended from 1860 to 1914. The admirable practice of namingnew genera by the use of a new prefix with -mermis originatedwith von Linstow and was first used in establishing the nameParamermis in 1898. In 1878 , he published a Compendium der Helminthologie, which lists several entomophilic nematodes.-
provided one of the firstclassifications of nematodes (1866). He accepted only M.nigrescens and named a new species M. lacinulata. He separatedMermis from Gordius, but left Sphaerularia bombi with Gordiusin the same group. In the same monograph, he reveals hiscuriosity about S. bombi by including a chapter on itsdevelopment.
- O. Butschli
(1848-1920, from Germany?). The first detaileddescriptions of the morphological characters used in taxonomy(1873). Perhaps, credit for founding the science of nematologyshould belong to him .-
(1851-1930 from The Neitherlands) He suggestedthe ratio alpha, beta, and gamma equivalent to a, b, and c that weuse in taxonomy (1880).-
. Excellent compilation of information on 202species of 27 nematode genera with description and illustrations(1881). Very good source for references.-
. (1883-1929, from Austria) He brought together all published species in his publication "Die freilebende Erd- Nematoden". He gave extensive keys to species including their habitats. This remains as the most valuable source of referencesto papers published up to that time (1922)-
I. N. Filipjev
(1889-1940, from Russia) "Manual of Agricultural Helminthology". This is a most comprehensivecompendium of nematological information and is especially