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Published by: humanupgrade on Apr 01, 2010
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General morphology of nematode1.are cylindrical in outline2.outer covering is the cuticle. The cuticle is formed bya.hypodermisb. muscle layer The cuticle not only acts as outer covering but also has significance in performing many rolesin functional activity.
The cuticle of the parasite may be expanded at the anterior part of the parasite which is calledas the
cervical alae
Cuticle may be expanded at the posterior part of the of the nematode which is called the
caudal alae.
5.At the anterior part of the body, cuticle may form cervical papillae.6.Cuticle may form the pre-cloacal and post cloacal papillae.
Cuticle from different types of thickenings which have got taxonomic importance. In
there are many cuticular thickenings. In the
there arepresence of cordons which are recurring or non-recurring types. In some nematodes cuticlesforms some ridges or in others, forms epaulletes (
) or dentigerous structures. Insome nematodes there may be formation of leaf crown (
) or cutting plates or teeth(
. The cuticle also forms one important structure which is called bursa which isthe posterior expansion of the cuticle (
). Spicule is another structure formed bythe cuticle. Some sensory organs are also formed by the cuticle, like
(present in theposterior part of the nematode) and
(present in the anterior part of the nematode)8.Moderately digestive system is found in the nematodes. The digestive system starts in themouth. The mouth may be surrounded by lips. Structure and arrangements of lips varied.9.Other structures found in the digestive system are pharynx, oesophagus, intestines, anus etc.Esophagus is very important in respect of taxonomic identification. The different types are:
- presence of posterior bulb ( eg. Heterakis gallinarum). Some roundworms isdouble bulbed ( Oxyuroids)
- shows anterior pyriform and posterior bulbous appearance ( Strongyloides ) 
- anterior part of the esophagus is muscular and posterior part of the same isglandular (all spirurid worm )
esophagus is tubular ( filarial worm) 
- esophagus is composed of cells arranged in a row ( Trichinella spp)10.Flame cells are absent. In most nematodes excretion is performed by a ventral pore and a pair of lateral longitudinal vessels11. The nervous system includes oesophageal nerve ring, nerve ganglia, nerve fibers connectingnerve ganglia, sense organs (phasmids, amphids, cervical papillae and genital papillae )
General biological development of nematodes
The eggs are expelled out. The eggs do not hatch in the environment. Within the eggs thelarvae develop. The larvae hatch after being ingested by the host. ( Ascarid worm)2. The eggs are expelled out of the host and the eggs hatch in the presence of differentenvironmental factors. The larvae develop to a certain limit to reach to the infective stage.Final host gets the infection by ingestion of infective larvae ( Strongyle )3.The eggs are expelled out of the host and the eggs when these eggs are ingested by theintermediate hosts. In the Intermediate host the larvae reached to the infective stage.(Spiruroidea )
4.The eggs are hatched and the larvae developed to the infective stage after being ingested bythe intermediate host. ( Metastrongyloidea)5.The worms are viviparous and the larvae mix up in the blood or lymph of the host. Theselarvae reach to the infective stage in the IH (Filarid worms )FAMILY ASCARIDIDAECharacteristics:1.Three lips are present. One dorsal and two subventral. Each lips bears two papillae.2.In between the lips there maybe small intermediate lips which are called interlabia.3.Teeth or cutting plates are absent4.Pharynx and oesophageal bulb are absent.5.Usually two spicules are present. Bursa is absent.6.Eggs are typically round or subglobular and outer wall is pitted.Genus Ascaris 
Ascaris suum 
Host- pigSite/location- small intestine Developmental stages:Eggs are expelled out. Larvae developed within the egg shell. Second larvae (L2) within theegg shell are the infective stage. The host gets the infection by ingestion of the infective eggs.Hatching occurs in the intestine and the larvae reach the liver either by active penetration by activepenetration via peritoneal cavity or hepatoportal circulation. The larvae are transported to heartand then to lungs where these are found as 3
larvae. Then the larvae follow the trachealmigration. The larvae are coughed up and develop to the fourth stage in the intestine and to adultstage subsequently.Pathogenesis:
Migration of larvae causes hemorrhagic lesions in liver and creates a “
milk spot”
appearance.2.The migrating larvae also creates lesions in the bronchiole and a;veoli which results inpneumoniaGenus ToxocaraSpecies:T. canis- dangerous to the puppiesT. catiT. vitolorum- causes calf-hood mortality in buffaloes in India
Toxocara canis ( also known as Arrow-headed worm or arrow worm) 
Life cycle:Egg> larva 1 in the egg shell> larva 2 in the egg shell (infective stage)> larva 3>larva 4 >adultRoutes of Infectiona. oral infection or ingestion of infective stage of eggsi. tracheal route of migration-when the pups are below 3 months of age, the tracheal route of migration occurs.After ingestion of the eggs, hatching occurs due to the presence of different biochemical factorspresent in the host. The larvae come out and start migration. The larvae penetrate into the wall of the intestine and enter into the general circulation. By the hepatoportal circulation the larvae are
transported to the liver and it penetrates the liver capsule. Then the larvae are transported to thelungs through the pulmonary circulation. The larvae are found first in the lower lung and thenmigrate to the upper part of the respiratory tract. They reach the bronchi, trachea etc. In the lungone moulting occurs and the second stage larvae are transformed into the third stage larvae. Thenthe larvae reached the GI tract when the cough containing the larvae is ingested and the larvaedeveloped furthewr to become adult.ii. somatic route of migration-occurs when the dog is pregnant. The larvae migrate to different organs and remain indormant stage. The activity and mobility are seized. The reason of this dormancy is not clearly butit is supposed to be due to the alternation of hormonal status of the blood during pregnancy stage.After about 1.5 months of the infection the larvae mobilize from the dormant stage and reach thegeneral circulation. Through the blood the larvae enter the different organs of the fetus. In the liver of the fetus the larvae perform one month moulting again. In this way the transuterine or congenitalinfection occurs.b. transuterine infection (congenital infection)c. Transmammary infection ( lactogenic infection)-the offspring gets the infection when it sucks the colostrums from its mother. Through thecolostrums the larvae enter the GI tract and they directly develop into the adult stage.d. Paratenic host transmission- rodents acts as the paratenic host for transmission of the parasite.Pathogenesis and clinical signs:1.hepatic damage due to migrating larvae2.alveolar destruction3.pneumonia ( ascarid pneumonia)4.vomiting5.pendulous pot bellied abdomenVisceral Larva Mirgrans (VLM)This occurs in children due to migration of ascarid larvae in the different vital organs of theabnormal host ( means not the definitive host which is the dog). The habit of dirt eating predisposeto this condition. Mainly the liver is affected but some organs maybe affected too. Eosinophiliaoccurs in the organs affected. It is caused by
Toxocara canis, T. cati, T. leonine , Capillariahepatica and Lagochilascaris minor.
Family Oxyuridae:-whip like, non-bursate nematodes.Genus Oxyuris 
Oxyuris equi ( pin worm or seat worm of horses)
rat tailed appearance
due to the irritation caused by the crawling femaleworms in the anusLife cycle: The female parasites crawl out of the anus and lay a number of eggs. Wirthin theeggs the larvae develop. The eggs fall on the ground and the host gets the infection by ingestion of the eggs along with the feed materials. After ingestion the eggs hatch and the larvae come out of the egg. The larvae develop to the adult stage in the intestine.( egg>larva1 in the egg shell>larva2 in the egg shell (infective stage)>larva3>larva4>adult)

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