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Design of Beams in Structural Steel

Design of Beams in Structural Steel

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Published by Maqsood

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Categories:Types, Maps
Published by: Maqsood on Apr 01, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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03/07/2013

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Design of beams in structural steel
 
Introduction
Beams are an important class of structural element, and are normally horizontal.The primary function of building structures is to support the major space enclosing elements:commonly these are floors, roofs and walls. The total behaviour of any building structure can becomplicated but frequently two types of sub-structure can be identified; vertical elements(associated with walls) and horizontal elements (associated with floors and roofs).Vertical elements are columns, walls and lift cores etc. Horizontal elements include slabs,trusses, space frames and most importantly beams.
 
What is a beam?
Beams support mainly vertical loads, and are small in cross-section compared with their span.Engineering diagrams adopt simple conventions to represent beams, supports and loads.This section deals specifically with the engineering design of beams. Although "
beam
" is a wordin common usage for engineering design, it has a very particular definition. A
beam
is astructural member which spans horizontally between supports and carries loads which act at rightangles to the length of the beam. Furthermore, the width and depth of the beam are "small"compared with the span. Typically, the width and depth are less than
span
 /10.
 
Support conditions
Beam supports are generally classified as pinned, fixed or free.Beams span between supports carrying the external load forces to the external reaction forces.The type of support influences the distribution of bending moments and shear forces. For simplespan beams the supports may be
 pinned 
,
 fixed 
or
 free
.A pinned support provides vertical but not rotational restraint.A fixed support provides vertical and rotational restraint.A free support provides no restraint which might seem to be a paradox (a free support is oftencalled a free end).The type of support significantly influences the bending moments and shear forces.For the same span L and the same loading, say a uniformly distributed load of W, the distributionof bending moments and shear forces is quite different.In simple construction, beam supports are commonly assumed to be pinned.Ideal pinned and fixed supports are rarely found in practice, but beams supported on walls orsimply connected to other steel beams are regarded as pinned. Where beams are continuous orpart of complete frames (portal etc.) the distribution of moments and shear forces is influencedby the behaviour of the complete structure.

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