Schematics Made Easy
Now let us consider some of the basic everyday circuitsand the meaning of the more common terms. These circuitswill be illustrated in schematic form showing only thecontrol portion and its variations for different machinefunctions.
— The circuit in Fig. 4 doesexactly what its name implies — starts and stops a motor by depressing the maintained start and stop pushbuttons
Fig. 4. Maintained Start-Stop Circuit. Motor is started by pushingbutton. Starter drops out whenever voltage is below hold-in value.
This circuit has
. Should the voltageon the coil drop below the hold-in value, the starter willdrop out. When the voltage is restored, the starter willimmediately pick up since the pushbutton has remainedclosed.Maintained start-stop circuits should only be used in theapplication of heating, lighting and other such non-mechanical applications. This circuit
be usedwith rotating or moving equipment due to the potentialhazard of an unwanted restart when power is restored.
may be provided ina circuit and assures that a magnetic controller will notrestart after a power interruption until the operator
the action with a pushbutton or other device.
. In Fig. 5 we have a momentarystart-stop control circuit. Here, the safety feature of under-voltage protection is provided. The operator must push thestart button to reenergize the starter after it has opened dueto undervoltage release as compared to the starter in Fig. 4which will energize as soon as voltage is restored. This isaccomplished by a holding interlock on the starter andmomentary actuated pushbuttons — as differentiated fromthe maintained type used in Fig. 4.
Fig. 5. Momentary Start-Stop Circuit showing holding interlock andmomentary actuated pushbuttons
.Starter coil M is energized when the start pushbutton isdepressed. This closes contact M which is connectedaround the start pushbutton, thus electrically “sealing” thecircuit. The start pushbutton, being of the momentary type,spring-returns to the open position when released. Thestarter, however, remains energized due to completion of the circuit through the now-closed M contact. This contactis referred to as the “seal-in” or “holding” interlock, andwould be the left contact on the starter in Fig. 2.Should the starter coil circuit be interrupted for any reasonsuch as power failure, insufficient coil voltage, overloadtrip, or operation of the stop button, the starter will dropout or be de-energized. The seal-in interlock opens and prevents an unwanted restart until the start button is againoperated. This is where the protection feature comes into play, since operation of the motor is completely under theoperator’s control.
Multiple Start-Stop Stations.
Extra start-stop pushbuttonstations can be added as shown in Fig. 6. The stop pushbuttons should be connected in series and the start buttons in parallel. Note that only a single seal-in Mcontact is required around the multiple start pushbuttons tomaintain the circuit to the motor starter coil.
Fig. 6. Multiple stations used with momentary start-stop circuit. Stopbuttons are wired in series and start buttons in parallel.
TWO & THREE WIRE CIRCUITS
The terms two-wire and three-wire control are frequentlyused — but not always understood. Using the basic circuitsshown in Figs. 7 and 8, let us clarify the origin of thesetwo expressions.
Fig. 7. Two-wire control circuit. Two wires are connected to the floatswitch energizing the magnetic starter.
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