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Development-india

Development-india

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Published by: Hussain on Apr 02, 2010
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11/26/2012

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NOTES FOR TEACHERS
 
NOTES FORNOTES FORNOTES FORNOTES FORNOTES FORTHETHETHETHETHETEACHERTEACHERTEACHERTEACHERTEACHER
CHAPTER I : DEVELOPMENTCHAPTER I : DEVELOPMENTCHAPTER I : DEVELOPMENTCHAPTER I : DEVELOPMENTCHAPTER I : DEVELOPMENT
Development has many aspects. Thepurpose of this chapter is to enablestudents to understand this idea. They haveto understand that people have different perspectives on development and there are ways by which we can arrive at commonindicators for development. To do this, wehave used situations that they can respondto in an intuitive manner; we have alsopresented analysis that is more complex andmacro in nature.How can countries or states becompared using some selected development indicators is another question that students would read about in this chapter.Economic development can be measuredand income is the most common methodfor measuring development. However, theincome method, though useful, has several weaknesses. Hence, we need newer waysof looking at development using indicatorsof quality of life and environmentalsustainability.It is necessary for you to expect thestudents to respond actively in theclassroom and on a topic such as the abovethere would be wide variation in opinionand possibility of debate. Allow students toargue their point of view. At the end of eachsection there are a few questions andactivities. These serve two purposes: first,they recap the ideas discussed in thesection and second, they enable better understanding of the themes discussed by  bringing the learners closer to their real-lifesituations. There are certain terms used in thischapter that would require clarification — Per Capita Income, Literacy Rate,Infant Mortality Rate, Attendance Ratio,Life Expectancy, Gross Enrolment Ratio,and Human Development Index. Thoughdata pertaining to these terms areprovided, these would need further explanation. You may also need to clarify the concept of purchasing power parity that is used to calculate per capita incomein Table 1.6. It is necessary to keep inmind that these terms are used as an aidto the discussion and not something to be memorised.
Sources for Information
 The data for this chapter is taken from reportspublished by the Government of India (
Economic Survey 
), United NationsDevelopment Programme (
Human Development Report 
) and World Bank (
World Development Indicators 
). These reports are being publishedevery year. It may be interesting to look upthese reports if they are available in your schoollibrary. If not, you may log on to the websitesof these institutions
(www.bugetindia.nic.in,www.undp.org, www.worldbank.org).
Data isalso available from the Reserve Bank’s
Handbook of Statistics on Indian Economy 
,available at 
www.rbi.org).
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 The idea of development or progresshas always been with us. We haveaspirations or desires about what we would like to do and how we wouldlike to live. Similarly, we have ideasabout what a country should be like. What are the essential things that werequire? Can life be better for all? How should people live together? Can there be more equality? Development involves thinking about thesequestions and about the ways in which we can work towards achievingthese goals. This is a complex task and in this chapter we shallmake a beginning at understandingdevelopment. You will learn moreabout these issues in greater depthin higher classes. Also, you will findanswers to many of these questionsnot just in economics but also in your course in history and political science. This is because the way we live today is influenced by the past. We can’t desire for change without being awareof this. In the same way, it is only through a democratic politicalprocess that these hopes andpossibilities can be achieved inreal life.
DEVELOPMENTDEVELOPMENTDEVELOPMENTDEVELOPMENTDEVELOPMENT
CHAPTER I
“Without me 
they 
cannot develop...in this system 
cannot develop!” 
 
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NDERSTNDERSTNDERSTNDERSTNDERSTANDINGANDINGANDINGANDINGANDING
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CONOMICCONOMICCONOMICCONOMICCONOMIC
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Let us try to imagine what development or progress is likely tomean to different persons listed in Table 1.1. What are their aspirations? You will find that some columns arepartially filled. Try to complete thetable. You can also add any other category of persons.
Category of Person
Landless rural labourersProsperous farmers from PunjabFarmers who depend only onrain for growing cropsA rural woman from a landowning familyUrban unemployed youthA boy from a rich urban familyA girl from a rich urban familyAn
adivasi 
from Narmada valley
WHAT DEVELOPMENT PROMISES —DIFFERENT PEOPLE, DIFFERENT GOALS
Having filled Table 1.1, let us now examine it. Do all of these personshave the same notion of development or progress? Most likely not. Eachone of them seeks different things. They seek things that are most important for them, i.e., that whichcan fulfil their aspirations or desires.In fact, at times, two persons or groups of persons may seek things
TABLE 1.1DEVELOPMENTAL GOALS OF DIFFERENTCATEGORIES OF PERSONS
Developmental Goals / Aspirations
More days of work and better wages; local school is able toprovide quality education for their children; there is no socialdiscrimination and they too can become leaders in the village.Assured a high family income through higher support prices fortheir crops and through hardworking and cheap labourers; theyshould be able to settle their children abroad.She gets as much freedom as her brother and is able todecide what she wants to do in life. She is able to pursue herstudies abroad.
YOU WANT ACARCARCARCARCAR
?
THE WAY OUR COUNTRY ISSET UP ALL YOU CAN HOPE FOR IS MAY BE TO ONE DAY OWN THE RICKSHAW YOU PULL! 

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Is crude oil essential for the development process in a country? Discuss.(b)India has to import crude oil. What problems do you anticipate for thecountry looking at the above situation?
Cool Atheana added this note
(a)Why ground water is overused?(b)Can there be development without overuse?
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