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04/02/2010

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http://syaifulsipil96.blogspot.com/  syaiful_ashari@yahoo.com

16 - 1

16.1 INTRODUCTION
In a bridge structures temperature change has very significant influence to its response. Temperaturechange cause additional strain to structural element. For unconstrained structural element temperaturechange cause zero stress, but for constrained structural element that temperature change causestress. For that reason we shall to placing release to a joint of element of bridge like expansion joint sothe joint free to expand.We can use matrix method for structural analysis under temperature change. Same like other modelingtechnique we need to transform the temperature change to equivalent joint loads.
16.2 TEMPERATURE CHANGE ON STRUCTURAL ELEMENT
Uniform change in temperature cause extensional strain in all direction but no shearing strain arises infreely deforming body. The extensional strain due to temperature change can be calculated with theequation belowT
TT
α=ε

16.1
Where :
T
ε
= thermal strain
T
α
= coefficient of thermal expansion (unit of strain)T = temperature changeThe coefficient of thermal expansion is described in table below

MATERIAL COEFFICIENT OFTHERMAL EXPANSION
Concrete 10E-6Steel 12E-6Wood 5E-6 (parallel fiber)50E-6 (perpendicular fiber)
CHAPTER
16
T

16 - 2
Thermal stress due to temperature change is
( )
TT
E
εε=σ

16.2
Where :
T
σ
= actual thermal stressE = modulus of elasticity
ε
= actual thermal strain
T
ε
= thermal strainIf the body is constrained then
T
ε
=0 then thermal stress becomes E
TT
ε=σ
. For that reason we cancontrol the thermal stress by placing releases, expansion joint in a structure.This chapter discussed about temperature change at the centroidal axis of structural element. Thermalstrain subjected to temperature change consists of thermal axial strain and thermal curvature strain.Thermal axial strain is
0T0
T
α=ε

16.3
Where :
0
ε
= thermal strain at centriodal axis
T
α
= coefficient of thermal expansion (unit of strain)T
0
= temperature change at centroidal axisThermal curvature strain isTh2
T0
Δα=φ

16.4
Where :
0
φ
= thermal curvatureh = depth of element
T
α
= coefficient of thermal expansion (unit of strain)T
Δ
= difference of top and bottom fiber of element sectionThe equation above assumes that temperature change linearly to element depth, if the temperaturechange is uniform then 0T
=Δ
produce only axial strain. In other word the temperature differencebetween top and bottom fiber is null.

http://syaifulsipil96.blogspot.com/  syaiful_ashari@yahoo.com

16 - 3
16.3 MODELING TECHNIQUE
16.3.1 General
In matrix method for structural analysis subjected to temperature change we need to transform thetemperature loading to equivalent joint loads or fixed end forces. For uniform temperature change toelement depth there are only normal fixed end forces. For linearly temperature change to elementdepth there are normal and flexure fixed end forces. In any condition of temperature change there is noshear fixed end forces.
16.3.2 Temperature Change Modeling
Normal fixed end force due to temperature change is
0T
EAN
ε=

( )
0TT
TEAN
α=

16.5
Where :N
T
= normal fixed end forceE = modulus of elasticityA = axial area
T
α
= coefficient of thermal expansion (unit of strain)T
0
= temperature change at centroidal axisFlexure fixed end force due to temperature change is
0T
EIM
φ=

⎠ ⎞⎝ ⎛ Δα=
Th2EIM
TT

16.6
Where :M
T
= flexure fixed end forceE = modulus of elasticityI = moment of inertia
T
α
= coefficient of thermal expansion (unit of strain)T
Δ
= temperature difference top and bottom fiber of sectionFixed end forces matrix due to uniform temperature change is
{ }
=
00NF
TTC

16.7
Fixed end forces matrix due to linearly temperature change is
{ }
=
TTTC
M0NF
16.8

NT123NTMTMT