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W
t
ABCThe above photo-elastic analysis of two gear teeth in contact shows that there aretwo types of high stress on the teeth. At A and B we see the tensile and compressivestresses due to bending of the tooth. Note that the compressive stress has a greater magnitude due to the radially inward component of the tooth force W
t
. The bendingstress is cyclic as it occurs once per revolution of the gear and will, thus, lead to a potential fatigue failure.At C we have a contact stress situation as the two, approximately cylindricalsurfaces roll and slide on each other during tooth contact. Thisstress may lead to asurface fatigue of the tooth.

Lewis Equation for Gear Strength.
Historically, the first equation used for the bending stress wasthe Lewis equation.This is derived by treating the tooth as a simple cantilever andwith tooth contactoccurring at the tip as shown above. Only the tangent component (W
t
) isconsidered. It is also assumed that only one pair of teeth is incontact. Stressconcentrations at the tooth root fillet are ignored. It can be shown that themaximum bending stress occurs at the tangent points on the parabola shownabove. Use of the standard equation for bending stress (
σ
= Mc/I) leads to:and, letting y = 2x/3p we get the original Lewisequation: where p = circular pitchReplacing p with the diametral pitch P ( =
π
/p) gives the more usual form:
3/2
Fxp p
=
σ
Fpy
=
σ
σ
= W
t
P/FY, whereW
t
= tangential tooth loadP = diametral pitchF = face width of tooth
σ
= bending stress in gear toothY = Lewis form factor

The Lewis form factor is a function of the number of teeth N andthe pressure angle
φ
and is given in the following chart. Note that the old 14.5 degree form factor is notgenerally used today.
Dynamic effects:
It is found that, if a pair of gears is run under load, the safeload on themdecreases as the running speed increases. Specifically, it is a function of the pitch line velocity V =
π
dN/12 ft/min where d is the pitch diameter ininches and N is the rotation speed in rpm.This is accounted for by the use of a velocity factor K
v
.Values of K
v
derived by Barthare used with the Lewis equation:
v
= (600 + V)/600 for crude gears (typically cast metal)
v
= (1200 +V)/1200 for cut or milled teethHence we get the gear stress asWe will not use the Lewis equation or the Barthvelocity factors in thiscourse as they have been superseded by the AGMA equations.
FY  P  K
v
=
σ
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