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Gearboxes

Gearboxes

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Published by Prithviraj Daga

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Published by: Prithviraj Daga on Apr 03, 2010
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08/12/2013

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Gearboxes
 
GearSelectionOptionsGearSelectionOptionsGearSelectionOptionsGearSelectionOptionsWhenadriveapplicationrequiresrotarymotiontobetransferredwithspeedchangeandortorquechangeanumberofoptionsareavailablecontrolledbysystemlayout,economicsandpowercapacity.Thedrivetransmissionselectionisselectedfromtheoptionsbelowinorderofconvenience.1.
 
BeltDrive(flat,vee,synchronous)2.
 
Chaindrive3.
 
Gearbox-gearedmotor4.
 
PurchasedStockgears-unlubricated(Plastic/metal-plastic/plastic)5.
 
PurchasedStockgears-metallubricated6.
 
EngineeredgearsItmustbeemphasisedthatdesigningandmanufacturingagearsystemisrelatively,expensiveandinconvenientifaproprietorysystemisavailablewhichwilldothejob..TypesOfGearsTypesOfGearsTypesOfGearsTypesOfGearsNote:Moredetailsandpicturesofallgeartypesbelowaretobefoundatthelinksbelowtable
 
TypeNotesFurtherNotes
Spur
Majorityofgearsarespur.Relativelyeasytodesignandmake.Parallelshafts.Highefficiency(99%pertrain).Nosidethrust.Canbackdrive.SingleRatioupto1:10.Canbemadeveryaccuratewithlowvibration/noise.Normallysteelpinionsrequirelubrication.Plasticgearscanbeusedrequiringnolubrication
InternalSpur
Similarperformancetonormalspur.Resultsincompactdrivegeometry.Usedinmanufactureofepicyclic/planetarygears.
Spur Gears 
 
Helical
SingleHelicalhavesimilarpropertiestospur.Howeverdriveresultsinaxialthrust.Gearsaresmoother/quieterforthesamesize/spec.Thegearscanrunathighspeedsuptolargediameters.Highertorque/lifecapabilitiesforsamesizeasspur.
Double-Helical
Similarbenefitstosinglehelicalbutwithnogeneratedsidethrust.Higherperformancecomparedtosinglehelical
Crossed-Helical
Shaftat90
o
.Difficulttomakeaccurately.Smoothdrive.
Helical Gears Worm
Offsetshaftsat90
o
.Veryhighratiospossibleinsinglestage.Slidingaction.Onegearisnormallycopperallow(bronze).Lowefficiencyathigherratiosandlowspeeds.Lubricationessentialformechanicalandthermalreasons.Cannotbackdriveathighratios.
Worm Gears BevelGear
Mainlyusedfordrivetransmissionthrough90
o
.Onlylowratiosused(4:1andless).Lubricationrequired.Somevibrationonspurtype:Helicaltypesmoother.
Bevel Gears Spiroid
Performasimilarfunctiontowormboxesbutthegearshavecharacteristicswhichcombinethoseofthebevelandwormgears.Highpowersandspeedratiosarepossibleandmechanicalefficiencieshigherthanwormboxesforequivalentratios.
 HarmonicDrive
Performanceadvantagesincludehigh-torquecapacity,concentricgeometry,lightweightandcompactdesign,zerobacklash,highefficiency,highratios(upto320:1),andbackdrivability.Harmonicdrivesystemssufferhowever,fromhighflexibility,resonancevibration.Usedinrobotics
HarmonicDrives 
BriefComparisonBriefComparisonBriefComparisonBriefComparisonTypeNormalRatioRangePitchLineVelocity(m/s)EfficiencyRange
Spur 1:1 to 6:1 25 98-99%Helical 1:1 to 10:1 50 98-99%Double Helical 1:1 to 15:1 150 98-99%Bevel 1:1 to 4:1 20 98-99%Worm 5:1 to 75:1 30 20-98%Crossed Helical 1:1 to 6:1 30 70-98%
AdditionalNotesonGearEfficiency
 
GearBoxNotesGearBoxNotesGearBoxNotesGearBoxNotes
Gearboxes Epicyclic Gears  DifferentialGearboxes Gear Lubrication Gear Heat Transfer 
 
 
Gear Boxes
 
IntroductionIntroductionIntroductionIntroductionPrimemoverssuchasElectricmotors,internalcombustionengines,steamenginesandturbinesproducerotarymotionatcertainspeedsandwithcertaintorquesatoptimumefficiency.Themotionproducedisrarelyequaltothemotionrequiredtodothenecessaryworkandgeartrainsarerequiredtotranslatethemotioneconomicallyatmaximumefficiency.Itmaybepossibletousealowcostmethodoftranslatingthemotione.g.atimingbeltveebeltorchaintransmissionsystem.Howeverthesemethodsarelimitingintheirscopeandaresubjecttoregularmaintenanceandreplacement.Theengineeredgearboxgenerallyprovidestheoptimumsolution.Manycompaniesprovidemotorisedgearunitswiththeelectricmotormounteddirectlyontoagearboxprovidingthedriveconditions(torqueandspeed)exactlyasrequiredbytheuser.Onceinstalledtothemanufacturersinstructionstheonlymaintenancerequiredisregularlubrication.Gearboxescanbeengineeredtoallowgearratiochangestoenableoutputshaftspeedwhilekeepingtheinputspeedandtorqueatthesamevalue.Theprimaryadvantageforusingagearboxforchangingspeedistoenablethefullpowertobetransmittedatthedifferentspeeds.Electricmotorsandotherprimemoversareratedforamaximumtorqueattheoptimumspeed.Ifthespeedisreducedusingelectroniccontrolstheresultingdevelopedtorqueisnotproportionallyincreased.Gearboxesalsoallowtheinputshaftandtheoutputshafttobeindifferentdirections.SimpleDriveTrainRulesSimpleDriveTrainRulesSimpleDriveTrainRulesSimpleDriveTrainRules1)Foranypairofmeshinggearstheangularvelocityratioisgivenby
ω
2
/
ω
1
=
ω
z
1
/z
2
=
ω
d
1
/d
2
ω
1
=Inputspeed(rads/s)
ω
2
=Outputspeed(rads/s)z
1
Numberofteethoninputgearz
2
Numberofteethonoutputgeard
1
PitchCircleDiaoftheinputgeard
2
PitchCircleDiaoftheoutputgearThesignis-(Reversing)ifbothgearsareexternaland+(Samedirection)ifonegearisaring(internalgear)2)Foratrainofgearwheelstheoverallangularvelocityratioisgivenby
ω
2
/
ω
1
=
ω
ProductofteethNo'sDrivinggears/ProductofteethNo'sDrivengears=
ω
Productofpitchdiameters(Drivinggears)/Productofpitchdiameters(Drivengears)Thesignis-(Reversing)ifthereareanoddnumberofpairsofexternalgears

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