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Impact Test

Impact Test

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Published by waysh

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Published by: waysh on Apr 03, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Materials are used to build load-bearing structures. An engineerneeds to know if the material will survive the conditions that thestructure will see in service. Important factors that adverselyaffect the toughness of a structure include low-testtemperatures, extra loading and high strain rates due to overpressurization or impacts and the effect of stress concentrationssuch as notches and cracks. These all tend to encourage fracture.To some extent, the complex interaction of these factors can beincluded in the design process by using fracture mechanicstheory. Tests for the impact toughness, such as the CharpyImpact Test , were developed before fracture mechanics theorywas available. The impact test is a method for evaluating therelative toughness of engineering materials. The Charpy impacttest continues to be used nowadays as an economical qualitycontrol method to assess the notch sensitivity and impacttoughness of engineering materials. It is usually used to test thetoughness of metals. Similar tests can be used for polymers,ceramics and composites. The charpy impact test measures theenergy
absorbed by the high strain rate
fracture of a standardnotched
specimen.In the Charpy Impact Test, the specimen is supported as a simplebeam with a notch in the center. The specimen is supported sothat the notch is on the vertical face away from the point ofimpact. Figure 3 and 4 show the dimensions of the Charpy ImpactTest specimen and the positions of the striking edge of thependulum and the specimen in the anvil. The specimen is broken bythe impact of a heavy pendulum hammer, falling through a fixeddistance (
constant potential energy 
) to strike the specimen at afixed velocity (
constant kinetic energy 
). Tough
materials absorb
a lot of energy when fractured and brittle
materials absorb verylittle energy.The Izod pendulum test configuration served as the standard inimpact testing in the plastics and metals industry for many years.The problems with the Izod pendulum test involve severalparameters which can drastically alter the results if not strictlycontrolled.
Position of the Charpy Impact Test specimen on the impact test machine
To test selected specimens under conditions of shock loading atfixed temperature. Also to measure the energy absorbed inbreaking a notched specimen.
Difference between Izod and Charpy Methods
Izod vs. Charpy Methods
The izod test involved the striker, the testing material, and thependulum. The striker was fixed at the end of the pendulum. Thetest material was fastened at a vertical position at the bottom,and the notch was facing the striker. The striker swingsdownward, hitting the test material in the middle, at the bottomof it’s swing, and is left free at the top. The notch is placed toconcentrate the stress, and provoke delicate failure. It lowersdistortion and decreases the ductile fracture. The test was doneeasily and quickly to examine the quality of the materials, andtest whether it meets the specific force of collision properties.It is also used to evaluate the materials for overall hardiness. Itis not applicable to compound materials because of the influenceof complicated and inconsistent failure modes.The notch is very important because it can affect the result ofthe test. The making of the notch has been a problem. Initially,the radius of the notch is crucial. The radius should not change.It has an essential effect on the competence of the sample toabsorb the collision. The blades in the notch can overheat thepolymers, and deteriorate the materials surrounding the notch,which could lead to an inaccurate test result. The Izod methodchose a short projection, supported at one end, to produce bettersteel tools for cutting metal.The Charpy method includes striking an appropriate test materialwith a striker fastened at the end of a pendulum. The testmaterial is secured horizontally in place at both ends, and thestriker hits the center of the test material, behind a machinednotch. The notch is positioned away from the striker, fastened ina pendulum. The test material usually measures 55×10x10

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