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Queueing Packet Scheduling for Integrated Services in Mobile Broadband Wireless

Queueing Packet Scheduling for Integrated Services in Mobile Broadband Wireless

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L.T. Yang et al. (Eds.): HPCC 2005, LNCS 3726, pp. 305
 
314,2005.© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2005
Delay Threshold-Based Priority Queueing PacketScheduling for Integrated Services in Mobile BroadbandWireless Access System
Dong Hoi Kim
1
and Chung Gu Kang
2
 
1
The Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute,Gajeong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, Korea
donghk@etri.re.kr
 
2
The college of Information and Communications,Korea University, Seoul, Korea
ccgkang@korea.ac.kr
 
Abstract.
In this paper, we present an opportunistic packet scheduling algo-rithm to support both real-time (RT) and non-real-time (NRT) services in mo-bile broadband wireless access (MBWA) systems. Our design objective is todetermine the maximum number of RT and NRT users with respect to the over-all service revenue while satisfying individual QoS requirements, e.g., themaximum allowable packet loss rate for RT traffic and the minimum reservedbit rate for NRT traffic. As opposed to a typical priority queueing-based sched-uling scheme in which RT users are always served a prior to NRT users whileNRT users are served with the remaining resource, the proposed scheme takesthe urgency of the RT service into account only when their head-of-line (HOL)packet delays exceed a given threshold. The delay threshold-based schedulingscheme allows for leveraging the multi-user diversity of NRT users, eventuallymaximizing the overall system throughput. By evaluating the proposed ap-proach in an orthogonal frequency division multiple access/frequency divisionduplex (OFDMA/FDD)-based mobile access system, it is shown that the overallsystem throughput can be significantly improved in terms of the number of us-ers or total service revenue.
1 Introduction
In recent years, the opportunistic packet scheduling algorithms have been the increas-ing interests for supporting various types of data services in the emerging mobilebroadband wireless access (MBWA) systems. In particular, OFDMA is considered asone of the most spectrally-efficient multiple access alternatives for these systems, as itfully leverages the multi-user diversity along with the frequency diversity inherent tothe OFDM (orthogonal frequency division multiplexing) scheme. As a transmissiondata rate varies with a location-dependent channel condition, especially under thecellular structure with an aggressive frequency reuse, most of the packet schedulingalgorithms considered in these systems deal with the non-real-time (NRT) services.One particular example is the proportional fairness (PF) packet scheduling algorithm[1]. Furthermore, there exist various types of modification to PF algorithm so as to
 
306 D.H. Kim and C.G. Kang
improve the data throughput [2]. As the RT service must be also supported in thesesystems, packet scheduling algorithms for the RT service class are independentlydeveloped, e.g., EXP scheme [3].In actual system to support both RT and NRT services, two different approachescan be used. One is the fixed-priority approach, which always prioritizes the RT ser-vice class over the NRT service class. In other words, NRT traffic is served with theresources remaining after all of the RT traffic has been served. This is essentially aform of priority queuing (PQ) scheme [4]. The other approach is to use two differenttypes of priority metrics, each specified for an individual service class. The prioritymetric for each class is selected to take their relative urgency, throughput, and fairnessamong both RT and NRT service class users into account under the varying channelconditions. Once the priority metrics have been evaluated individually, a user with thehighest metric value is served first, regardless of its service class. The EXP/PFscheme in [5] is an example of this particular approach.In this paper, we propose a different type of packet scheduling scheme, called a de-lay threshold-based priority queueing (DTPQ) scheme, which is designed to supportboth RT and NRT services in an integrated manner. The maximum allowable packetloss rate and the minimum reserved bit rate are the QoS parameters under considera-tion for RT and NRT traffic, respectively. The design objective of the proposedpacket scheduler is to determine the optimal number of RT and NRT users with re-spect to the overall service revenue while satisfying individual QoS requirements. Asopposed to a typical priority queueing-based scheduling scheme in which RT usersare always served a prior to NRT users while NRT users are served with the remain-ing resource, the proposed scheme takes the urgency of the RT service into accountonly when their head-of-line (HOL) packet delays exceed a given threshold. In otherwords, as long as the maximum allowable packet loss rate requirement is satisfied, RTusers can be delayed so as to maximize the throughput for the NRT users, leveragingthe multi-user diversity of NRT users.By evaluating the proposed approach in an orthogonal frequency division multipleaccess/frequency division duplex (OFDMA/FDD)-based mobile access system, it isshown that the system capacity can be significantly improved in terms of the numberof RT and NRT service users.
2 Problem Formulation
2.1 Motivation
For RT service class, there is a pre-specified packet loss rate requirement, which isgoverned by the maximum allowable delay,
max
. A HOL packet will be dropped if its delay exceeds
max
, the corresponding packet will be dropped and thus, the corre-sponding QoS requirement may not be met. In other words, as the HOL packet delayfor RT service class increases towards
max
, a higher priority must be given to theRT service class users. However, if this prioritization is performed too early, thenQoS requirement of the RT service class will be over-enforced,, which subsequentlyhurts the performance of NRT service class.
 
Delay Threshold-Based Priority Queueing Packet Scheduling for Integrated Services 307
max
Maximum delay requirement ()
i
=
Measured delay (())
i
W
=
max
i
kW 
HOLpacketdelay
Time
 
Fig. 1.
Relative HOL packet delay variation subject to delay requirement
 
In the proposed scheme, we introduce a HOL delay threshold as a design parame-ter, which determines which service class to be served first. As shown in Fig. 1, thedelay threshold is given by
max
kW 
, where
is a control parameter that determines thepriority of one service class over the other. Note that
max
kW 
must be less than
max
,i.e.,
 
01
. As long as HOL packet delays of all RT service class users do notexceed
max
kW 
, then NRT service class users are scheduled. Otherwise, RT serviceclass users are scheduled. Meanwhile, an appropriate priority metric for opportunisticscheduling is selected for each service class. In other words, all users in the sameservice class are served on the basis of their own priority metrics. In the current dis-cussion, we consider exponential (EXP) scheduling algorithm [3] for RT service classand proportional fairness (PF) scheduling algorithm [1] for NRT service class.The proposed approach consists of two different steps, one which deals with priori-tizing the two different service classes and the other that prioritizes the users in thesame service class. Here, the control parameter
must be determined to maximize agiven objective function. Given the parameter
, for example, the total numbers of RTand NRT users that satisfy the target outage probability are denoted by
()
 RT 
 N
and()
 NRT 
 N
, respectively. Note that the optimal value of parameter
changes accordingto the operator’s policy, e.g., depending on the service charges for the different traffictypes subject to the prescribed QoS requirement. Note that delay requirement for theRT service class users is immediately violated with 1
=
, in which case none of theRT service class users can be served unless there remains the resource after servingall RT service class users.
2.2 QoS and Performance Measures
The performance of RT service class is specified by the packet loss rate, which isdefined as a ratio of the number of dropped packets to the total number of packets.Packet is dropped when the packet delay exceeds a specified delay,
max
. Let
 RT 
U
 and
 NRT 
U
denote a set of users belonging to RT service and NRT service classes,respectively. If the numbers of dropped and transmitted packets during a given

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