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Segmentation

Segmentation

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Published by Madhusudan Partani
Basis of Segmentation in marketing- Notes by Madhusudan Partani
Basis of Segmentation in marketing- Notes by Madhusudan Partani

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Published by: Madhusudan Partani on Apr 04, 2010
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06/02/2011

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Segmentation
A single product may not be consumed by all. There are very few generic products like Salt which isconsumed by everyone without any differentiation. But this may not be true in all the cases. Andalso marketer since has limited resources, cannot fulfil requirements of all the consumers who havedifferent demands, thus marketer had to select a particular segment. Segmentation is defined assegregating a particular set of customers having similar demand and share similar characteristics.Segmentation can be on basis of Geography, Demography, Psychograph, behavioral, etc...
Geographic Segmentation
Geographic segmentation implies dividing market into different segments such as nations, states,districts etc... In context of India marketers need to segment the market in terms of North India,South India and so on because the tastes and demands differ a lot. There is difference ion Climaticconditions, the food habits, the cultures etc... Thus Haldirams has different variants of its snacks orNorth Indian states and different for South Indian States.Also the markets can be segmented based on Rural and Urban markets. The marketers launch theirproduct in different packages and different variants in Rural and Urban markets. For instance mostof the FMCG firms like HUL and P&G launched their shampoos in very small sachets in rural markets.Also their marketing campaign differs in both the segments.
Demographic Segmentation
The customers can be segregated based on different demographic factors too
 Age
Based on age the customers can be segmented as Infant, Child, Youth, Middle Aged and Old. Eachage group has different sets of requirements with different habits and needs to be targeteddifferently. For Instance the Old aged customer will be more conventional and risk averse and wouldbe demanding healthy food and a youngster would prefer modern trend and is risk taking and willalso prefer junk food. Thus Sanskar and Aastha TV target Old aged people and MTV targetYoungsters and Cartoon Network and Pogo TV target Children.
Life Stage
Life stage implies the stage of life of the customer. He may be married, or is a grandfather, or is atstage of searching for employment or is taking care of his old parents. The customer can besegmented on this basis too. Especially in case of women their role differs a lot based on their roleplayed. Thus it becomes per se necessary to segment based on this criterion.
Income
 
Income is also one of the vital bases of segmentation. Marketer can segment based on Income leveland position its products to target specific income group. For Instance HUL targets Lower Incomegroup with Life Buoy and Liril; Middle Income group with Lux and Higher Income group with Dove.This segmentation is also used in case of price differentiation between discounted stores andpremium stores. Pantaloons have a Showroom targeting higher segment and Factory Outlets tocater needs of lower income.
Social Class
Consumer eats food, wears clothes and uses products based in his social class to. A manager wearsluxury suits, drives in a Mercedes and uses Gucci Perfumes and a Labour wears cheaper clothes,rides bikes and scooters and uses talcum powder. Thus customer can be segmented based on rolesplayed by them and their social status.
Gender 
Gender becomes one of the most important parameter of segmenting markets. Most of themarketers use this basis. The cosmetics, apparels, healthcare etc uses this kind of segmentation. Forinstance Hero Honda launched its Pleasure specifically targeted to Young Girls. Axe promotes itsproducts focusing on male Youth. Himamis fair and Handsome is made specifically for Make youth.
Psy
chographic Segmentation
In this buyers are divided into different segments based on their personality, psychological traits, lifestyle etc... A customer could be trend adopter, trend follower or a trend setter. He can be Achiever,Follower, Risk Averse, and Extrovert, Judgemental etc... Thus based on once lifestyle and values themarket can be segmented. For Instance Toyota Innova segmented market based on values andtargeted an individual who has values for his family. Also Mountain Dew focuses on Adventurouscustomers.
Behavioural Segmentation
Apart from the above discussed factors, a marketer also uses behavioural factors to segment themarket.
O
ccasions
Market can also be segment based on various occasions. For instance Christmas, Diwali, Mothersday, fathers day Valentines Day etc... In a country like India with many different religions andcustoms, marketer also uses this basis for segmenting the market. For instance Hallmarks cards andArchies Uses this basis. Also Cadbury segments the market based on various festivals and occasionslike First day of month to promote its product, Diary Milk.
Benefits
Customers can be grouped based on the benefit they arrive from using the product. For instancesome use cool drinks for the purpose of quenching thirst and some for treating guest and others for

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