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Fundamental of Computer Network

Fundamental of Computer Network

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A guide for computer network
A guide for computer network

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Published by: Prof.Hitesh Mohapatra on Apr 05, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Introduction toComputer Network 
Hitesh Mahapatra
Networking is the concept of sharing resources and services. A network of computers is a group of interconnected systems sharing resources and interacting usinga shared communications link. A network, therefore, is a set of interconnected systemswith something to share. The shared resource can be data, a printer, a fax modem, or aservice such as a database or an email system. The individual systemsmust be connectedthrough a pathway (called the transmission medium) that is used to transmit the resourceor service between the computers. All systems on the pathway must follow a set of common communication rules for data to arrive at its intended destination and for thesending and receiving systems to understand each other. The rules governing computercommunication are called protocols.In summary, all networks must have the following:1.A resource to share (resource)2.A pathway to transfer data (transmission medium)3.A set of rules governing how to communicate (protocols)Figure(1) -Simplest form of a computer network  Having a transmission pathway does not always guaranteecommunication. When two entities communicate, they do not merely exchangeinformation; rather, they must understand the information they receive from each other.The goal of computer networking, therefore, is not simply to exchange data but tounderstand and use data received from other entities on the network.An analogy is people speaking, just because two people can speak, it does not mean theyautomatically can understand each other. These two people might speak differentlanguages or interpret words differently. One person might use sign language, while the
3other uses spoken language. As in human communication, even though you have twoentities who "speak," there is no guarantee they will be able to understand each other. Justbecause two computers are sharing resources, it does not necessarily mean they cancommunicate.Figure (2) -An analogy of a computer networ Because computers can be used in different ways and can be located atdifferent distances from each other, enabling computers to communicate often can be adaunting task that draws on a wide variety of technologies.The two main reasons for using computer networking are to provideservices and to reduce equipment costs. Networks enable computers to share theirresources by offering services to other computers and users on a network. The followingare specific reasons for networking PCs1.Sharing files2.Sharing printers and other devices3.Enabling centralized administration and security of the resources within thesystem.4. Supporting network applications such as electronic mail and database services5.Limited resources6.Desire to share the resources7.Cost ReductionToday, that's a limiting view, because the most important resource isinformation. Network lets us share information and Resource Sharing achieves the same.

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