Quirk, R. and S. Greenbaum 197313 major classes of adverbials: "Adjuncts", Disjuncts, Conjuncts(all instances of the term "adjunct" in this text refer to the category of
as described in Quirk &Greenbaum 1973, but will not systematically appear in quotes)
"Adjuncts" resemble S, O (C) in being integrated into the structure of the sentence/clause while otherclasses of adverbials are felt more like peripheral to it.1.
Adjuncts cannot appear initially in a negative declarative sentence:a.
*Quickly, they didn't leave for home.2.
Adjuncts can be focused: in a cleft sentence, by a question or by clause negation:a.
It was on Tuesday that we went to Chicago.;b.
Does he write to his parents because he wants to (or does he write to them because heneeds money)?;c.
We didn't go to Chicago
but we did go there on Tuesday.3.
Adjuncts can be elicitated by question forms:a.
did you go to Chicago?Unlike disjuncts or conjuncts:1.
To my regret, they didn't leave for home.2.
!*Does he write to his parents,
to my regret
(or does he write to them
to my relief
!*We didn't go to Chicago
, to my regret
, (but we did go there,
to my relief
*!To whose relief did you go to Chicago?Some items can be used as if belonging to more than one class:
They aren't walking naturally. (manner)
Naturally, they aren't walking. (disjunct)
More syntactic features of adjuncts
they are related to VP so when the VP is under ellipsis (with or without a pro-form) they areunderstood as being included in this process:a.
John greatly admires Bob, and so does Mary (= and M. greatly admires Bob)2.
They can be the focus of limiter adverbials such as
want the car for an hour (not for longer).b.
meet afterwards (in addition to some other time)
Semantic classes of "adjucnts"
p. 210-242 (8.6 -8.46)1.
Paraphrase: "if we consider what we are saying from a ... [AP] ... point of veiw" : geographically,linguistically; corresponding participle clauses: [(eg.technically) speaking]; corresponding PPs: [from aAP point of view]; others:
As far as .... is concerned
Looked at economically
2. Focusing adjuncts
mostly adverbs; cannot be modified (very...), and most of them cannot be coordinated
only one clichecoordination:
purely and simply
.Many focusing adjuncts can appear within the
clause of a cleft sentence: - It was
: alone, just, merely, only, purely, simply; chiefly, especially, mainly, mostly, in particular;
: also, either, even, neither, nor, too, as well as, in addition.