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Annals of Tourism Research_Volume 36 , No.3 , 2009

Annals of Tourism Research_Volume 36 , No.3 , 2009

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ANNALS OF TOURISM RESEARCH
EDITOR-IN-CHIEF John Tribe
Professor of TourismUniversity of SurreyGuildfordGU2 7XHUnited KingdomEmail: j.tribe@surrey.ac.uk
ASSOCIATE EDITORS
Anthropology
Nelson H H Graburn:
Univ of California-Berkeley, USA
Dennison Nash:
Univ of Connecticut, USA
Economics and Management Science
 Josef A Mazanec:
Vienna Univ Austria
Abraham Pizam:
Univ of Central Florida, USA
Geography
 John Coshall:
London Metropolitan Univ, UK
History
Auvo A Kostiainen:
Univ of Turku, Finland
Hospitality
Kaye Chon:
Hong Kong Polytechnic Univ, China
Information Technology
Ulrike Gretzel:
Texas A&M Univ, USA
Leisure/Recreation
Cara Aitchison:
University of Bedfordshire, UK
Geoffrey Wall:
Univ of Waterloo, Canada
Political Science
Linda K Richter:
Kansas State Univ, USA
Psychology
Philip L Pearce:
Psychology, James Cook Univ, Australia
Regina G Schlu¨ter:
Univ Nacional de Quilmes, Argentina
Regional Planning
Douglas C Pearce:
Victoria Univ of Wellington, New Zealand
Sociology
Erik Cohen:
The Hebrew Univ of Jerusalem, Israel
David H Harrison:
Univ of the South Pacific, Suva, Fiji Islands
FIELD EDITORSAntonios Andronikou:
Former Director General, CyprusTourism Organization, Cyprus
Alexander Anolik:
President, International Forum of Traveland Tourism Advocates, USA
Lou D’Amore:
President, International Institute for Peacethrough Tourism, USA
Francesco Frangialli:
Secretary-General, World TourismOrganization, Spain
Victor S Kachanov:
Vice President, Central Council forTourism and Excursions, Russia
Walter Leu:
Executive Director, European Travel Commission,Belgium
Geoffrey H Lipman:
Former President, World Travel andTourism Council, UK
Bengt Pihlstrom:
Former Director, Finnish Tourist Board, Finland
Tom Selanniemi:
Chairman, Aurinkomatkat-Suntours, Finland
Salah E A Wahab:
President, Tourismplan, Egypt
COMMENTARY EDITORMargaret B Swain:
Anthropology, Univ of California-Davis, USA
REPORT EDITORS Juergen Gnoth*:
Marketing, Univ of Otago, New Zealand
Russell A Smith*:
Planning, Nanyang Tech. Univ., Singapore
PUBLICATION EDITORStephen L J Smith*:
Recreation, Univ of Waterloo, Canada
CALENDAR AND INDEX EDITORHonggen Xiao:
Linguistics, Hong Kong Polytechnic University,China
RESOURCE EDITORS
Eugeni Aguilo:
Economics, Univ de las Islas Baleares, Spain
 Jong-yun Ahn:
Public Admin., Hanyang Univ, R. Korea
 Julio R Aramberri:
Sociology, Drexel Univ, USA
IrenaAteljevic:
Socio-culturalgeography,WageningenUniversity,TheNetherlands
Rene´Baretje:
Economics, CIRET, France
Susanne Becken:
Environment, Lincoln University, New Zealand
Bill Bramwell:
Geography, Sheffield Hallam Univ, UK
Ralf Buckley:
Ecology, Griffith Univ, Australia
Kenneth Button:
Economics, George Mason Univ, USA
Christine Buzinde:
Cultural Studies, Pennsylvania State Univ, USA
 Joseph S Chen:
Leisure, Indiana Univ-Bloomington, USA
Sidney Cheung:
Anthropology, Chinese Univ of Hong Kong, China
Michael Clancy:
Political Science, Univ of Hartford, USA
Malcolm Cooper:
Urban/Regionals, Ritsumeikan Asia Pacific Univ, Japan
Peter U C Dieke:
Tourism, George Mason Univ, USA
Kadir H Din:
Environment, Univ Utara Malaysia, Malaysia
David A Dittman:
Accounting, Cornell Univ, USA
Sara Dolnicar:
Marketing, University of Wollongong, Australia
Larry Dwyer:
Economics, Univ of New South Wales, Australia
William R Eadington:
Economics, Univ of Nevada-Reno, USA
Christopher Endy:
History, California State Univ-Los Angeles, USA
Eduardo Fayos-Sola:
Economics, Univ of Valencia, Spain
Alan Fyall:
Marketing, Bournemouth Univ, UK
Vasiliki Galani-Moutafi:
Anthropology, Univ of the Aegean, Greece
William C Gartner:
Resource Economics, Univ of Minnesota, USA
Charles R Goeldner:
Marketing, Univ of Colorado-Boulder, USA
Anton F Gosar:
Geography, Univ of Ljubljana, Slovenia
Rodrigo Gru¨newald:
Anthropology, Univ of Campina Grande, Brazil
Dogan Gursoy:
Hospitality/Tourism, Washington State Univ, USA
 Jan Vidar Haukeland:
Sociology, Inst. of Transport Economics, Norway
C. Michael Hall:
Social Science, Univ of Canterbury, New Zealand
Andrew Holden:
Environment, University of Bedfordshire, UK
Tzung-Cheng Huan:
Outdoor Recreation, National Chiayi Univ, Taiwan
 Jens Kr Steen Jacobsen:
Sociology, Univ of Stavanger, Norway
Tazim Jamal:
Management, Texas A&M Univ, USA
Myriam Jansen-Verbeke:
Geography, Leuven Univ, Belgium
Carson L Jenkins:
Economics, Univ of Strathclyde, UK
Lee Jolliffe:
Museum, Univ of New Brunswick, Canada
Maria Kousis:
Sociology, Univ of Crete, Greece
Metin Kozak:
Tourism, Mugla University, Turkey
Neil Leiper:
Southern Cross Univ, Australia
Christine Lim:
Economics, Univ of Waikato, New Zealand
Dean MacCannell:
Applied Behavior Sciences, Univ of California-Davis, USA
Yoel Mansfeld:
Geography, Univ of Haifa, Israel
Darya Maoz:
Anthropology, The Centre for Academic Studies, Or Yehuda,Israel
 Jerome L McElroy:
Economics, Saint Mary’s College, USA
Bob McKercher:
Tourism, HongKong Polytechnic Univ, China
Marc L Miller:
Anthropology, Univ of Washington, USA
Chaim Noy:
Communications, Israel
Lars Olov Nyberg:
Geography, Mid Sweden Univ, Sweden
Fevzi Okumus:
Management, Univ of Central Florida, USA
 James Petrick:
Texas A&M University, USA
 John J Pigram:
Geography, Univ of New England, Australia
Antonio Russo:
Geography, Univ Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona, Spain
Oriol Pi-Sunyer:
Anthropology, Univ of Massachusetts, USA
Richard Prentice:
Tourism Marketing, Univ of Strathclyde, UK
Greg Richards:
Geography, Univ Rovirai Virgili, Spain
Michael Riley:
Sociology, Univ of Surrey, UK
Melville Saayman:
Recreation, Potchefstroom Univ, South Africa
Noel Salazar:
Anthropology, University of Leuven, Belgium
Carla A Santos:
Mass Communication, Univ of Illinois, USA
Pauline J Sheldon:
Economics, Univ of Hawaii, USA
Ercan Sirakaya-Turk:
Sustainable Development,The University of South Carolina, USA
Egon Smeral:
Economics, Institute of Economic Research, Austria
Ginger Smith:
Communication, George Washington Univ, USA
Valene L Smith:
Anthropology, California State Univ-Chico, USA
Trevor Sofield:
Anthropology, Murdoch Univ, Australia
Victor B Teye:
Geography, Arizona State Univ, USA
Paris Tsartas:
Sociology, Univ of the Agean, Greece
Hazel Tucker:
Social Anthropology, University of Otago, New Zealand
Muzaffer Uysal:
Recreation, Virginia Tech, USA
Soile Veijola:
Sociology, Univ of Lapland, Finland
Boris Vukonic:
Economics, Faculty of Economics, Croatia
Gordon Waitt:
Geography, Univ of Wollongong, Australia
Doug Walker:
Economics, College of Charleston, USA
Ning Wang:
Sociology, Zhongshan Univ, China
Paul F Wilkinson:
Geography, York Univ, Canada
Allan M Williams:
Geography, London Metropolitan Univ, UK
Shinji Yamashita:
Anthropology, Univ of Tokyo, Japan
 Jorge Zamora:
Consumer Studies, Univ of Talca, Chile
*Department Head and Associate Editor
Editors representvarious disciplines in order to ensureboth strength and balance in Annals’ multidisciplinary approachto the studyof tourism. Annals Language Bank (Editors): Afrikaans, Arabic, Catalan, Chinese, Croatian, Czech, Danish, Dutch, English, Finnish,Ghanian, French, German, Greek, Hebrew, Hungarian, Indonesian, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Malay, Norwegian, Persian, Polish,Portugese, Romanian, Russian, Serbian, Slovene, Spanish, Swedish, and Turkish.FOUNDING EDITOR Jafar Jafari
Web: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/annals
 
THEENVIRONMENT-TOURISM NEXUS
Influence of Market Ethics
Andrew Holden
University of Bedfordshire, England
 Abstract:
Society is at a critical juncture in its relationship with the natural environment, arelationship in which tourism has growing significance. Yet, twenty years after the BrundtlandReport, environmental policy has to date had little influence upon the workings of the tour-ism market, the supply and demand elements of which determine the ‘use’ or ‘non-use’ of nature. Inherent to the market is its environmental ethic, that is, the extent of our recogni-tion of nature’s rights to existence. The thesis of this article is that whilst environmentalpolicy may possibly have a greater influence in the future, it is the environmental ethicsof the market that will be deterministic to the balance of the tourism-environmenrelationship.
Keywords:
environmental ethics, environmental economics, sustainable tour-ism.
Ó
2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
INTRODUCTIONThe literature on tourism’s impacts upon the natural environment is well-established (e.g.,Mishan 1969; Mathieson and Wall 1982; Hunterand Green 1995; Mieczkowski 1995; Holden 2008) and it is not theintention to reiterate its negative and positive consequences. The rapidgrowth in demand for international tourism during the second half of the last century has lent a global spatial dimension to these impacts.For example, impacts of tourism on the natural environment of Antarc-tica have been observed (Hall and Wouters 1994; Hall and Johnston1995), whilst the contribution of aviation to Greenhouse Gas (GHG)emissions has become an issue of economic and environmental debate.In the context of the society-environment relationship, which is at acritical juncture for deciding the extent that human activity is permit-ted to alter patterns of nature, our behavior and attitudes towards thenatural environment will subsequently also influence the tourism-envi-ronment nexus. A lexicon of terms depicting environmental problems,including global warming, ozone depletion, bio-diversity loss, speciesextinction, and ecosystem degradation are now interwoven into the
 Andrew Holden
is Professor of Environment and Tourism and Director for the Centre forResearch into the Environment and Sustainable Tourism (CREST) at the University of Bedfordshire (Putteridge Bury, Luton, LU2 8LE, England. Email: <andrew.holden@beds.ac.uk>). His research interests include environmental ethics; sustainable tourism develop-ment; poverty alleviation; and the tourist behavior/natural environment interface.
Annals of Tourism Research,
Vol. 36, No. 3, pp. 373–389, 20090160-7383/$ - see front matter
Ó
2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.Printed in Great Britain
doi:10.1016/j.annals.2008.10.009
 www.elsevier.com/locate/atoures
373
 
discourse of global society. Scientific evidence suggests that thesechanges are a consequence of human activity rather than natural pro-cesses (Stern 2006; IPCC 2007). Significantly, these changes in the nat-ural environment also present a threat to the ‘‘ecosystem services’’upon which our well-being depends (Millennium Ecosystem Assess-ment 2005).These ecosystem services include: ‘‘provisioning services’’ for exam-ple, food and water; ‘‘regulating services’’ for example, climate andflood control; ‘‘cultural services’that offer recreational, aestheticand spiritual benefits; and ‘‘supporting services’’, for example, photo-synthesis and nutrient recycling (ibid.). Evidently the raison d’eˆtre of tourism is closely linked with cultural services but it is ultimately depen-dent upon the other ecosystem services, that is, recreational benefit isless likely to be obtained if there is a reduction in the quality of provisioning, regulating and supporting services. Subsequently, thetourism-environment relationship can be understood as being recipro-cal, tourism influencing environmental well-being which in turn im-pacts upon the characteristics and quality of tourism. The predictednumerical and spatial growth of tourism, the United Nations WorldTourism Organization (UNWTO 2007) forecast an increase in interna-tional tourism arrivals from a current level of approximately 800 mil-lion per annum to 1.6 billion per annum by 2020, implies that tourism will have an increasing global significance as a user of naturalresources in the future.Tourism’s relationship with the natural environment is made com-plex through the involvement of a diversity of stakeholders, the vari-ance of the spatial dimension of its activities, a lack of cleardefinition of key conceptual themes, and the subsequent difficultiesof the systematic planning of its development. For example, whilst most stakeholders in tourism would probably agree that ‘‘sustainabletourism development’’ is a desirable goal, the variety of interpretationsof what it actually is, typically lends it a reductionist approach, limitedto isolated examples of environmental initiatives and improvementsundertaken by tour operators, hotel groups or destinations. Thisshared observation of the limitations of sustainable tourism leadsSaari-nen (2006:1133)to ask: ‘‘Are the present local solutions to global chal-lenges enough, and do they represent all that tourism can do?’’Thus, twenty years after the publication of the Brundtland Report ( WCED 1987), the subsequent advocating of sustainable tourism by international agencies including the United Nations World TourismOrganization (UNWTO), United Nations Environment Program(UNEP), United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organi-zation (UNESCO), the European Union (EU), and the World Develop-ment Bank, the extent to which tourism’s relationship with the naturalenvironment has ‘‘improved’’, however we choose to conceptualizeand measure it, is debatable and contentious. With reference to a list of rhetorical questions concerning the suc-cess of the mitigation of the negative environmental impacts of masstourism, including; whether the majority of hotels and other tourismcompanies had now adopted environmental management systems; nat-
374
A. Holden / Annals of Tourism Research 36 (2009) 373–389 

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