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Basics of Surveying

Basics of Surveying

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Published by prashanth68760
this comprises of basics of surveying with examples
this comprises of basics of surveying with examples

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Categories:Types, School Work
Published by: prashanth68760 on Apr 05, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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01/08/2011

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SURVEYINGSURVEYING
PreamblePreamble
SurveyingSurveyingisisinvolvedinvolvedininaaprojectprojectfromfromconceptualconceptual stagestagetotoconstructionconstructionandandafterwardsafterwardsinin maintenancemaintenancealsoalso..DependingDependingononthethestagestageatatwhichwhich surveyingsurveyingisiscarriedcarriedoutoutititcancanbebecalledcalled..
i)i)Pre constructionPre constructionsurveysurveyFeasibility survey (RECT, PECT)Feasibility survey (RECT, PECT)ii)ii)ConstructionConstructionsurveysurveyTo maintain alignment and GeometryTo maintain alignment and Geometrycontrol during construction. (FLScontrol during construction. (FLSand other )and other )iii)iii)PostPostconstructionconstructionMaintenance surveyMaintenance survey
 
Definition :Definition :Operation of making suchOperation of making such measurements that the relative position of measurements that the relative position of various features, natural or Artificial on thevarious features, natural or Artificial on thesurface of the earth can be exhibited in theirsurface of the earth can be exhibited in theircorrect Horizontal and vertical relationship.correct Horizontal and vertical relationship.Normally determining position in HorizontalNormally determining position in Horizontalplane is called surveying.plane is called surveying.Determining relative heights or depth is calledDetermining relative heights or depth is calledlevelling.levelling.
 
PurposePurpose
::The main object of surveying is theThe main object of surveying is the preparation of maps or plans which are the basis inpreparation of maps or plans which are the basis inplanning and design of engineering project such asplanning and design of engineering project such asroute location of railway line, roads and water supplyroute location of railway line, roads and water supplyscheme.scheme.
Basic Principles in SurveyingBasic Principles in Surveying
::RulingRuling principle of survey is :principle of survey is :i) ³ to work from whole to part´. For surveyingi) ³ to work from whole to part´. For surveyingEstablish control points with high precision by use of Establish control points with high precision by use of Triangulation and precise levelling. Area is furtherTriangulation and precise levelling. Area is furtherdivided into triangle, which are surveyed with lessdivided into triangle, which are surveyed with lessaccuracy.accuracy.ii) to fix the position of new stations by atleast twoii) to fix the position of new stations by atleast twoindependent processesindependent processes ±  ±By linear and AngularBy linear and Angular

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