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Kidney Chapter2

Kidney Chapter2

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Published by sandip_tiwari

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Published by: sandip_tiwari on Apr 05, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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page 14
Living with kidney failure
Your extensive guide
Kidney disease
page 15
Chronic Kidney Disease is silent because it is possibleto lose 90% of kidney function before even feeling sick.Doctors use three simple tests to assess your kidney function and help plantreatment.
Blood pressure test
Blood pressure can be measured in a variety of ways butthe standard method is using an arm cuff and a stethoscope.It is recorded as two numbers e.g. 130/70. The first numberis the systolic reading. This is the pressure in the arteries astheheart pumps out blood during a beat. The second numberis the diastolic reading, which is the pressure of the bloodin the arteries when theheart relaxes before the next beat.Sinceblood pressure varies from person to personand during the day, there are no fixed rules about whatblood pressure reading is normal. These figures can bea useful guide:– Normal blood pressure: less than 120/80– High Normal: 120-139/80-89– High: more than 140/90
Urine tests
Proteinuria is the term used to describe excessiveamounts ofprotein in theurine. Normally, protein is notremoved from the blood when the kidneys filter waste fromthe blood. However, when the kidneys are damaged proteinleaks through the damaged filters and appears in the urine.It can be detected in theurine using a simple dipstick.The appearance of protein in theurine may be the firstsign of an otherwise silent kidney condition.Protein leaks into theurine in very small or ‘micro’amounts. The two commonest proteins that appear intheurine when this happens are albumin, an importantbloodprotein, and globulin, which is largely made upofantibody proteins.Your microalbumin level can be measured by a specialurine test either on a singleurine sample or timedurinecollection. A microalbumin test should be done at leastonce a year if you have diabetes.
Testing for kidney disease
Kidney disease
page 16
Blood test
A blood test can measure how well your kidneys filter the waste products and toxins from your blood, so it is the bestindicator of kidney function. By combining the result of yourbloodcreatinine level with your age and your gender, yourkidney function is measured using a special formula toprovide an ‘estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate’ or eGFR.eGFR readings are grouped into five levels or stagesof kidney function. The stages are only a guideas function can vary. The closer the value is to zero,the less kidney function you have.
eG FRmL/m i n/1.73m
S tage Descr i p t io n
  – 90
No  kidne ydamageor S tage 1 Kidne y 
damage wi t h
nor l  kidne yf unc tion
60  – 89
S tage2Mi ld  loss in  kidne y f unc tion
0  – 59
S tage3odera te  lossin  kidne y f unc tion
5  – 29
S tage4Se vere  loss in  kidne yf unc tion
15  – 29
S tage5 Kidne y fai l ure
– ou
GR ispod inmililis p minu
ndis shn 
–  a
is a han mLmin1.3m
l ao 6
>6 mL
– omlaboaois do
nosho anaa
baussulsabo6 m b
. ou
R islss han6,haal alu
ill l sho.

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