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Theory of Switches

# Theory of Switches

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THIS IS A DOCUMENT SPECIALLY FOR THE ENGINEERING STUDENTS , IT CONSISTS THEORY ON HOW A SWITCHING ACTION TAKES PLACE , AND A C PROGRAM RELATED TO IT ALONG WITH THE OUTPUT
THIS IS A DOCUMENT SPECIALLY FOR THE ENGINEERING STUDENTS , IT CONSISTS THEORY ON HOW A SWITCHING ACTION TAKES PLACE , AND A C PROGRAM RELATED TO IT ALONG WITH THE OUTPUT

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11/04/2013

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Title :

Non Blocking Switch
Aim:
To calculate the number of crosspoints in a non-blocking 3 stage Space Division Switch.
Theory:
Circuit Switch is divided into two types:-1. Space Division2. Time DivisonSpace Division has two parts i:e crossbar and multistage switches.Crossbar switch-A crossbar switch connects n inputs to m outputs in a grid, using electronic micro switches(transistors) ateach crosspoint.To connect n inputs to m outputs using a crossbar switch requires n*m crosspoints.The major limitation of this design is the number of crosspoints required.For Eg. :To connect 1000 inputs to 1000 outputs requires a switch with 1.000,000 crosspoints.A crossbar switchwith this no of crossspoints is impractical.Such a switch is also inefficient because statistics show that, in practice, fewer than 25% of thecrosspoints are in use at any given time. The rest are idle.Multistage switch-The solution to limitation of the crossbar switch is the multistage switch,which combines crossbar switches in several (normally three) stages.In a single crossbar switch, only one row and one column is active for any connection. So we need n*ncrosspoints.If we can allow multiple paths inside the switch , we can decrease the number of crosspoints.Each crosspoints in the middle stage can be accessed by multiple crosspoints in the first or third stage.The multistage switch has one drawback-blocking during periods of heavy traffic. The whole idea of multistage switching is to share the crosspoints in the middle stage crossbars.
Conclusion:
We are basically calculating the number of cross points in a 3 stage space division switch, we firstcalculate the total number of crosspoints recquired and then minimum number of crosspoints recquired,so after the termination of the program what we observe is that the number of cross points are reduced toa great extent when we use the minimum cross point formula .

Algorithm :
1.Enter the number of inlets (N) and number of inlets per group (n) for the 3-Stage Space DivisionSwitch.2.Calculate the number of blocks (k) in the second stage using the formula k=2*n-1.
3.
The number of crosspoints (c) are calculated by the formula c=(2*N*k)+k* .4.Display the number of calculated crosspoints.5.For calculating the minimum number of crosspoints the value of n=sqrt(N/2).6.Calculate the value of c for the new value of n.7.Display the new value of calculated crosspoints.8.Calculate the difference between the old value and new value of C, and display the results.

Program:
#include<stdio.h>#include<math.h>#include<conio.h>void main(){int N,n,k,c,temp,diff;clrscr();printf("Enter the number of inlets :\n\n");scanf("%d",&N);printf("Enter the number of inlets per group:\n\n");scanf("%d",&n);k=2*n-1;c=(2*N*k)+k*N*N/(n*n);temp=c;printf("Number of crosspoints for a non-blocking 3-Stage SDS=%d\n\n",c);printf("For obtaining minimum number of crosspoints for non-blocking 3-Stage SDS:\n\n ");n=sqrt(N/2);c=4*N*(sqrt(2*N)-1);printf("Minimum number of crosspoints for a non-blocking 3-Stage SDS=%d\n\n",c);diff=temp-c;printf("The number of crosspoints are reduced by=%d\n\n",diff);getch();}