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tdm

tdm

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Published by ubaid_saudagar

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Published by: ubaid_saudagar on Apr 05, 2010
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06/22/2014

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Title :
TIME DIVISION MULTIPLEXING
Aim :
Write a program in C language to calculate the different parameters of TDM.
Theory :
Time-division multiplexing (TDM) is a type of digital or (rarely) analogmultiplexing in which two or more signals or bit streams are transferred apparently simultaneously as sub-channels in onecommunication channel, but are physically taking turns on the channel. The time domain is dividedinto several recurrent timeslots of fixed length, one for each sub-channel. A sample byte or data blockof sub-channel 1 is transmitted during timeslot 1, sub-channel 2 during timeslot 2, etc. One TDMframe consists of one timeslot per sub-channel. After the last sub-channel the cycle starts all over again with a new frame, starting with the second sample, byte or data block from sub-channel 1, etc.In circuit switched networks such as the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) there exists theneed to transmit multiple subscribers¶ calls along the same transmission medium.
[2]
To accomplishthis, network designers make use of TDM. TDM allows switches to create channels, also known astributaries, within a transmission stream.
[2]
A standard DS0 voice signal has a data bit rate of 64 kbit/s,determined using Nyquist¶s sampling criterion.
[2][3]
TDM takes frames of the voice signals andmultiplexes them into a TDM frame which runs at a higher bandwidth. So if the TDM frame consists of n voice frames, the bandwidth will be n*64 kbit/s.
[2]
 Each voice sample timeslot in the TDM frame is called a channel .
[2]
In European systems, TDMframes contain 30 digital voice channels, and in American systems, they contain 24 channels.
[2]
Bothstandards also contain extra bits (or bit timeslots) for signalling (see Signaling System 7) andsynchronisation bits.
[2]
 Multiplexing more than 24 or 30 digital voice channels is called higher order multiplexing.
[2]
Higher order multiplexing is accomplished by multiplexing the standard TDM frames.
[2]
For example, aEuropean 120 channel TDM frame is formed by multiplexing four standard 30 channel TDM frames.
[2]
  At each higher order multiplex, four TDM frames from the immediate lower order are combined,creating multiplexes with a bandwidth of n x 64 kbit/s, where n = 120, 480, 1920, etc.
[2]
 
Conclusion:
 After performing the above program what we see is that the different parameters of the TDM arebeing calculated which depend on two basic parameters viz. number of signals and the data rate , soif we change the data rate and the number of signals then the value of all the parameters will bechanged.
 
Algorithm :
Step 1: Intake from the user the number of signals to be multiplexed.Step 2: Intake the data rate from the user inbits per second.Step 3: Calculate the duration of each bit before multiplexing and display it.Step 4: Calculate the transmission rate and display it.Step 5: Calculate the duration of each time slot and display it.Step 6: Calculate the duration of one frame and display the value.Step 7 : Stop
 
P
rogram :
#
include<conio.h>
#
include<stdio.h>
#
include<math.h>void main(){floatn,dr,tb,tr,du,fd;clrscr();printf("CALCULATION OF DIFFERENET PARAMETERS OF TIME DIVISION MULTIPLEXING :\n");printf("Enter number of signals :\n");scanf("%f",&n);printf("Enter data rate in bits per second :\n");scanf("%f",&dr);tb = 1/dr;printf("Duration of each bit before multiplexing:\n %f \n",tb);tr = n*dr;printf("Transmission rate of time division multiplexing is :\n %f \n",tr);du = 1/tr;printf("Duration of each time slot in time division multiplexing is :\n %f \n",du);fd = n*du;printf("Duration of one frame in time division multiplexing is :\n %f \n",fd);getch();

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