RESTAURANT OPERATIONS MANAGEMENTPRINCIPLES and PRACTICESJack D. Ninemeier David K. HayesPART 1 RESTAURANT BASICS1.
INTRODUCTION TO RESTAURANTS and THE RESTAURANT INDUSTRY
EUROPEAN RESTAURANT HISTORYThere is evidence that food was sold in public marketplaces seven-thousand years ago andhistorical accounts describe the banquets and feasts enjoyed by the ancient Greeks andRomans twenty-five hundred years ago.The oldest written recipes date from the fourthcentury B.C. in a cookbook written by Apicius. The earliest recorded cuisine, then is thatof the ancient Romans.France with itshaute cuisine, became a leader in fine dining by improving on many basicfood preparation and service techniques that had been developed earlier in severalEuropean countries including Italy and Spain.Before the 1600s, justa few inns were available for travelers, who primarily traveled for trade and religious purposes; there was little travel for pleasure. In fact,the word ´travelµ
comes from ´travailµwhich means to toil at hard labor.In the mid-1700s, a Frenchman began sellingsoups, which he suggested werehealth
restorersin an establishment called a restauer (French for ´to restoreµ).And the termrestaurant was born.U.S. RESTAURANT HISTORYIn the United States, an increasing number of taverns and inns became popular in citiesduring the early 1800s. As they grew in wealth and sizecommunities began to supportmore extravagant and expensive eating out alternatives.American Plan: The hotel pricing structure in which some (or all) of a guest·s meals areincluded in the basic guest room rate. (Full-Board)Modified American Plan: Half-Board ( Zimmer mit Halbpension )A la Carte (Menus):Menu pricing in which each meal component is sold (priced)individually. European Plan: The hotel pricing structure in which guests pay only for the meals theyconsume; food charges are not part of the basic room rate. ( accommodation only ² Zimmerpreis ohne Pension ) The secret of success:The secret of success in restaurant operation includescleanliness excellent service andhigh-quality silverware/linen; most importantly; the food should be very good .Thesuccessful restaurant operators generally own their own farms to provide milk, butter,and eggs.In the 1950s,the McDonald·s restaurant chainbegan its rise to popularity. Other chainsfollowed with specialties including fried chicken, roast beef sandwiches, fish, and pizza