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Restaurant Operations Management

Restaurant Operations Management

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Published by jakjuk

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Published by: jakjuk on Apr 06, 2010
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EUROPEAN RESTAURANT HISTORYThere is evidence that food was sold in public marketplaces seven-thousand years ago andhistorical accounts describe the banquets and feasts enjoyed by the ancient Greeks andRomans twenty-five hundred years ago.The oldest written recipes date from the fourthcentury B.C. in a cookbook written by Apicius. The earliest recorded cuisine, then is thatof the ancient Romans.France with itshaute cuisine, became a leader in fine dining by improving on many basicfood preparation and service techniques that had been developed earlier in severalEuropean countries including Italy and Spain.Before the 1600s, justa few inns were available for travelers, who primarily traveled for trade and religious purposes; there was little travel for pleasure. In fact,the word ´travelµ comes from ´travailµwhich means to toil at hard labor.In the mid-1700s, a Frenchman began sellingsoups, which he suggested werehealth restorersin an establishment called a restauer (French for ´to restoreµ).And the termrestaurant was born.U.S. RESTAURANT HISTORYIn the United States, an increasing number of taverns and inns became popular in citiesduring the early 1800s. As they grew in wealth and sizecommunities began to supportmore extravagant and expensive eating out alternatives.American Plan: The hotel pricing structure in which some (or all) of a guest·s meals areincluded in the basic guest room rate. (Full-Board)Modified American Plan: Half-Board ( Zimmer mit Halbpension )A la Carte (Menus):Menu pricing in which each meal component is sold (priced)individually. European Plan: The hotel pricing structure in which guests pay only for the meals theyconsume; food charges are not part of the basic room rate. ( accommodation only ² Zimmerpreis ohne Pension ) The secret of success:The secret of success in restaurant operation includescleanliness excellent service andhigh-quality silverware/linen; most importantly; the food should be very good .Thesuccessful restaurant operators generally own their own farms to provide milk, butter,and eggs.In the 1950s,the McDonald·s restaurant chainbegan its rise to popularity. Other chainsfollowed with specialties including fried chicken, roast beef sandwiches, fish, and pizza
among many others.Their advantage; clean premises, standardized menus, quick serviceand low prices.Before the 1970s, many Americans did not drink wine at all: Many know little about thebeverage and were reluctant to try it. Since that time, wines have dramatically increasedin popularity and by the 1980s, some of the bestCalifornia wines had excellent reputationsand could successfully compete with their French counterparts. By the early 1980s American began to eat out more frequently. One reason wasdemographics (more single and divorced persons and a growing proportion of workingwomen).The Travel / Tourism IndustryThe travel / tourism industry identifies three major segments:
transportation services
destination alternativesCommercial Operations (foodservices):Foodservices offered in hotels and restaurants andother organizations whose primary financial goal involves generation of profitsfrom thesale of food and beverage products.Noncommercial Operations (foodservices):Foodservice operations whosefinancial goaldoes not involve generating profitsfrom the sale of food and beverage products, alsocalled institutional foodservices.Self-operated (Noncommercial foodservices):A type of non-commercial foodservicesoperation in whichthe program is managed and operated by the organization·s ownemployees.Contract Management Company-operated (Noncommercial food services):A type of non-commercial foodservices operation in whichthe program is managed and operated by acompanyspecializing in foodservices management.WHAT IS A RESTAURANT?A restaurant is a for-profit foodservice operationwhose primary business involves the saleof food/beverage products toindividualsandsmall groups of guests. Restaurants may have few or many seats;they may be free-standing or located within a hotel, resort or shopping mall. They may or may not serve alcoholic beverages in addition to food and mayhave extensive or limited menus.
They may offer fine dining at high prices (gourmet food served by highly experiencedservice staff to guests seated at tables covered with tablecloths and set with the finesttableware.They may also bequick-serviceproperties withlower prices offering food served at a counter by a cashier.They may offer a theme to complement the dining area with modest tables/chairs and /or booths and counters.Restaurants offer alternative service methods.Restaurant (Independent
): Properties owned/operated by an entrepreneur which are notaffiliated with a franchised or multiunit organization.Restaurant (Multiunit):Properties which areaffiliated with a franchise or other organizationcontaining multiple (sometimes thousands) properties; also called a ´chainµ.  Franchise:An arrangement whereby one party (the franchisor) allows the owner of thehospitality business (the franchisee) to use the franchisor·s logo, name, systems, andresources in exchange for a fee.Franchisor:Those who own and manage the brand and sell the right to use the brandname to franchisees.Receiving: The transfer of ownership from a supplier to the hospitality operation whichoccurs when products are delivered.Storing:The process of holding products under optimal storage conditions until they areneeded for production or use.Issuing: the process of moving products from storage areas to the point of use (place of production)Preparing: The steps involved in getting an ingredient ready for cooking or serving. For example, celery must be cleaned and chopped before being cooked in a stew or cleanedand sliced before use on an appetizer tray.Cooking: The application of heat to food to make the food more palatable and/or enjoyablefor consumption.Holding: The task of maintaining food items at proper serving temperature after they areprepared. Holding involves keeping hot foods hot and cold foods cold.BASIC MANAGEMENT ACTIVITIES
Planning :Defining goals, establishing strategies to achieve them and designingways to get work done.Organizing: Developing and grouping work tasks.Coordinating: Arranging group efforts in an orderly manner.Staffing: Finding the right people for the job.Directing: Supervising the work of staff members.Controlling: Determining the extent to which the organization ´keeps on trackµ of 

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