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LDS Old Testament Notes 12: The Law & the Tabernacle

LDS Old Testament Notes 12: The Law & the Tabernacle

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Published by Mike Parker
All Old Testament notes: http://www.scribd.com/collections/4343354
Class website: http://bit.ly/ldsarc
Handout for these notes: http://www.scribd.com/doc/29505395
Slideshow for these notes: http://www.scribd.com/doc/29549444
All Old Testament notes: http://www.scribd.com/collections/4343354
Class website: http://bit.ly/ldsarc
Handout for these notes: http://www.scribd.com/doc/29505395
Slideshow for these notes: http://www.scribd.com/doc/29549444

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Published by: Mike Parker on Apr 06, 2010
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© 2014, Mike Parker http://bit.ly/ldsarc For personal use only. Not a Church publication.
Old Testament Week 12: The Law and the Tabernacle (Exodus 16
40; Leviticus; Numbers; Deuteronomy)
1)
 
Introduction. a)
 
This lesson covers a huge amount of material. We can’t hope to cover everything, but  we’ll try to get an overview, and give a closer examination of some of the
most important portions of the text.  b)
 
Those of you who actually read the entire assignment get an
automatic ―A‖ for this
semester!
2)
 
[SLIDE 2]
Tabernacle design and function. a)
 
The Lord gave instructions to Moses on building a
Tabernacle
1
a portable temple
and the objects that would be used in it for offerings and other ordinances: i)
 
[SLIDE 3]
The Ark of the Covenant, which was placed in the Holy of Holies. ii)
 
[SLIDE 4]
The altar of incense,
[SLIDE 5]
the lampstand (
menorah
),
[SLIDE 6]
and the table for the showbread, the three of which were in the Holy Place. iii)
 
[SLIDE 7]
The laver (or
basin
)
[SLIDE 8]
and the brass altar, which were in the courtyard of the Tabernacle.
2
 iv)
 
(The handout for this lesson has descriptions of these items.)  b)
 
This is the first mention of a sacred structure in ancient scripture.
3
 i)
 
[SLIDE 9]
The temple was the earthly dwelling-place of God (Exodus 25:8). ii)
 
Up to this point, mountains had served the same functions as temples, where humans could personally experience God. (1)
 
Moses on Mt. Horeb (burning bush) and Sinai (the Ten Commandments). (2)
 
Brother of Jared on Mt. Shelem. c)
 
[SLIDE 10]
The priestly clothing (Exodus 28). i)
 
Special clothing was to be worn when in service of the Lord (something we still do today in latter-day temples). ii)
 
The clothing was to be simultaneously ornate, symbolic, and functional.
4
 (1)
 
The clothing of a priest was called ―holy garments,‖ and each priest was to wash
himself before putting them on (Leviticus 16:4).
1
 The source of the English word
tabernacle
 is the Latin
tabernaculum
, ―tent‖
(
). The Hebrew noun
ן שמ
(
mish-kawn
’) indicates a ―dwelling
-
place‖ or ―sanctuary.‖
 
2
 See Exodus 25
27, 29
30, 37
38, 40.
3
 This includes the Old Testament-era material in the books of Moses and Abraham, neither of which mentions temples.
4
 The beauty of th
e high priest’s clothing and richness of the materials in the tabernacle demonstrated that Israel gave their very finest to the Lord’s house. The clothing was also functional: The priests were required to wear breeches (trousers
) under their coats (Exodus 28:42), so that they would not accidentally expose themselves when squatting down during the performance of ordinances.
 
Hurricane Utah Adult Religion Class Old Testament: The Law and the tabernacle Week 12, Page 2 © 2014, Mike Parker http://bit.ly/ldsarc For personal use only. Not a Church publication.
(2)
 
The clothing of the high priest, worn by Aaron and others who followed him in this office, was to consecrate him (or
set him apart 
) and to serve as a perpetual reminder that the priest ministers on behalf of the twelve tribes of Israel (Exodus 28:3, 12). (a)
 
[SLIDE 11]
The high priest’s mitre (turban) had affixed to it a gold plaque that read ―
H
OLINESS TO THE
L
ORD
.
‖ (Exodus 28:36–
38). (i)
 
The phrase means ―consecrated to Jehovah.‖
 (ii)
 
The engraving was a perpetual reminder of the holiness that was due to the Lord in all the clothing, the furnishings, and the activities with which the high priest was involved. (iii)
 
In modern times, we inscribe the same statement on the outside our temples. iii)
 
[SLIDE 12]
The Urim and Thummim. (1)
 
These items are mentioned seven times in the Old Testament.
5
 (2)
 
The traditional meaning of the two words is ―lights and perfections.‖ It could also
 be translated
―revelation and truth.‖
 (3)
 
Their appearance is not described in the Old Testament. (Some later traditions describe them as black and white stones.) (4)
 
Two of the seven passages indicate that they were
used for determining the Lord’s
 will (
Numbers 27:21
; 1 Samuel 28:6). (a)
 
Most scholars believe that together they were ―lot or
acles
 that could be thrown or tossed to determine the divine will. (Sort of like
―God’s
dice.
‖)
6
 (b)
 
From Joseph Smith’s firsthand experience we
learn that the Urim and Thummim are examples of
seer stones
, into which a seer could look and view things the Lord wanted to reveal to him.
7
 d)
 
[SLIDE 13]
 Aaron and his sons were consecrated (
ordained 
,
set apart 
) as priests for service in the tabernacle (
Exodus 29:9
). i)
 
The Hebrew word translated ―consecrate‖ in the KJV (
ח למו
 /
vml’ath
) literally
means ―fill the hand.‖
 (1)
 
The symbolism here is that the priest would stand with his hand in the shape of a cup, ready to receive what was offered to him.
8
 (2)
 
 An outstretched hand, turned over like a cup or bowl, looks a lot like an incense spoon. These spoons were used to tend the altar of incense in the holy place twice a day (as directed in Exodus 30:1
10).
9
 
5
 Exodus 28:30; Leviticus 8:8; Numbers 27:21; Deuteronomy 33:8; 1 Samuel 28:6; Ezra 2:63; Nehemiah 7:65.
6
 See Cornelis Van Dam,
The Urim and Thummim: A Means of Revelation in Ancient Israel
(Winona Lake, Indiana:
Eisenbrauns, 1997). Van Dam’s work is one of the most comprehensive scholarly treatments of the Urim and Thummim,
examining Biblical, ancient, medieval, and modern sources. Howev 
er, in 274 pages he doesn’t mention Joseph Smith or
Mormonism even once, even though Mormon sources have more to say about the Urim and Thummim (and seer stones in general) than almost all other sources combined.
7
 See notes for Doctrine and Covenants lesson 3, pages 7
11 (
http://sites.google.com/site/hwsarc/home/dc/week03
).
8
 
See Lynn M. Hilton, ―The Hand as a Cup in Ancient Temple Worship,‖ paper presented at the Thirtieth Annual
Symposium on the Archaeology of the Scriptures, held at Brigham Young University, 26 September 1981 (
http://mormonmonastery.org/PDF/hand.pdf 
).
 
Hurricane Utah Adult Religion Class Old Testament: The Law and the tabernacle Week 12, Page 3 © 2014, Mike Parker http://bit.ly/ldsarc For personal use only. Not a Church publication.
(a)
 
The incense would be burned, and rising smoke symbolized the prayers of Israel ascending to God.
10
 (3)
 
[13.1]
 Archaeologists in the Near East have discovered shallow stone bowls and spoons, with a hand carved on the bottom so that the vessel appears to be a cupped palm. ii)
 
In ancient Israel the process of becoming a priest didn’t involve the laying on of
hands, as it does today. Rather, Aaron and his sons were taken into the Tabernacle,  washed, clothed, anointed, and had their hands filled.
11
 
3)
 
[SLIDE 14]
Offerings made at the Tabernacle (see handout). a)
 
There were six major types of offerings, most of which involved animal sacrifice (except the meal offering).  b)
 
The burnt offering was the most common, and was performed daily on behalf of Israel as a whole, and also by private individuals. The process is described in the opening chapter of Leviticus:
1
And the L
ORD
 called unto Moses, and spake unto him out of the tabernacle of the congregation, saying,
1
Then the L
ORD
 called to Moses and spoke to him from the Meeting Tent:
2
Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them, If any man of you bring an offering unto the L
ORD
, ye shall bring your offering of the cattle, even of the herd, and of the flock.
 2
―Speak to the Israelites and tell them,
When someone among you presents an offering to the L
ORD
, you must present your offering from the domesticated animals, either from the herd or from the flock.
3
If his offering be a burnt sacrifice of the herd, let him offer a male without blemish: he shall offer it of his own voluntary will at the door of the tabernacle of the congregation before the L
ORD
.
 3
If his offering is a burnt offering from the herd he must present it as a flawless male; he must present it at the entrance of the Meeting Tent for its acceptance before the L
ORD
.
4
And he shall put his hand upon the head of the burnt offering; and it shall be accepted for him to make atonement for him.
 4
He must lay his hand on the head of the burnt offering, and it will be accepted for him to make atonement on his behalf.
5
And he shall kill the bullock before the L
ORD
: and the priests, Aaron
s sons, shall bring the blood, and sprinkle the blood round about upon the altar that is by the door of the tabernacle of the congregation.
 5
Then the one presenting the offering must slaughter the bull before the L
ORD
, and the sons of Aaron, the priests, must present the blood and splash the blood against the sides of the altar which is at the entrance of the Meeting Tent.
6
And he shall flay the burnt offering, and cut it into his pieces.
 6
Next, the one presenting the offering must skin the burnt offering and cut it into parts,
7
And the sons of Aaron the priest shall put fire upon the altar, and lay the wood in order upon the fire:
 7
and the sons of Aaron, the priest, must put fire on the altar and arrange wood on the fire.
8
And the priests, Aaron
s sons, shall lay the parts, the head, and the fat, in order upon the wood that is on the fire which is upon the altar:
 8
Then the sons of Aaron, the priests, must arrange the parts with the head and the suet on the wood that is in the fire on the altar.
9
 See Exodus 25:29; 37:16; Numbers 4:7; 7:86.
10
 See Revelation 8:3
4.
11
 See Exodus 29; Leviticus 8.

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