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Intro to Pressure Vessel

# Intro to Pressure Vessel

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author - Muhammad Ridhwan b Abdul Rasid
author - Muhammad Ridhwan b Abdul Rasid

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07/08/2014

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INTRODUCTION TO PRESSURE VESSEL
PREPARED BY: MUHAMMAD RIDHWAN ABDUL RASID, MECHANICAL TRAINEE DATE: FEBRUARY 2010
Stresses
In two dimensions, the state of stress at a point is conveniently illustrated by drawing fourperpendicular lines that we can view as representing four adjacent planes of atoms taken from anarbitrary position within the material. The planes on this stress square shown in Fig. 1 can beidentified by the orientations of their normals; the upper horizontal plane is a +y plane, since itsnormal points in the +y direction. The vertical plane on the right is a +x plane. Similarly, the leftvertical and lower horizontal planes are y and x, respectively.
Figure 1: State of stress in two dimensions; the stress square.
The sign convention in common use regards tensile stresses as positive and compressive stresses asnegative. Besides, the stress square must be in equilibrium; therefore this arrow must be balancedby another force acting on the x (lefty) face and pointed in the x (lefty) direction. Of course, theseare not two separate stresses, but simply indicate the stress state is one of uniaxial tension. It goessame with y direction for compression.
Figure 2: The sign convention for normal stresses.
Consider now a simple spherical vessel of radius r and wall thickness b, such as a round balloon. Aninternal pressure p induces equal biaxial tangential tensile stresses in the walls, which can bedenoted using spherical r coordinates as  and . The internal pressure generates a forcetowards the spherical wall, which is balanced by the wall stress.
Figure 3: Wall stresses in a spherical pressure vessel.
At the surfaces of the vessel wall, a radial stress must be present to balance the pressure there.

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Figure 4: Free-body diagram for axial stress in a closed-end vessel.
The stresses in the axial direction of a cylindrical pressure vessel with closed ends are found usingthis same approach as seen above and yielding the same thing (equilibrium state& equation).
Figure 5: Hoop stresses in a cylindrical pressure vessel.
Note the hoop stresses are twice the axial stresses. This result  different stresses in differentdirections  occurs more often than not in engineering structures, and shows one of the 3compelling advantages for engineered materials that can be made stronger in one direction thananother (the property of anisotropy). If a pressure vessel constructed of conventional isotropicmaterial is made thick enough to keep the hoop stresses below yield, it will be twice as strong as itneeds to be in the axial direction.
What is pressure vessel?
Structures such as tank capable of holding internal pressure have been very important in the historyof science and technology. In order to make a better flow of gas and fluid, an aqueduct or tank mustbe constructed so they can run all the way from the reservoir to the destination.However, temperature& pressure differential is dangerous and many fatal accidents have occurredin the history of their development and operation. These temperature& pressure difference havecreated stresses toward the shell.A pressure vessel is a closed container designed to hold gases or liquids material under internal orexternal pressure.Pressure vessels are designed to operate safely at a specific pressureand temperature technically referred to as the "Design Pressure" and"Design Temperature". Design code to design pressure vessel such asASME sec VIII and BS standard.Pressure vessels may theoretically be almost any shape, but shapes made of sections of spheres,cylinders, and cones are usually employed. A common design is a cylinder with hemispherical endcaps called heads.

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Type of pressure vessel
1.

Shell is primary component that contains pressure. Curvedshape.b.

Components typically welded together.d.

Saddle supports used for horizontal vessel.-

One support fixed, other slides.
2
.

Vertical vessel on leg support.a.

Most head are curved shape for strength, thinness andeconomy.b.

Semi-elliptical shape is most common head shape.c.

Small vertical vessel typically supported by legs-

Typically maximum
2:
1 ratio of leg length to diameter.-

Number, size and attachment details depend on loads. 3.

Tall vertical tower.a.

Nozzles used for
:
-

Piping systems-

Instrument connections-

Manways-

Attaching other equipmentb.

End typically flanged, maybe welded.c.

Sometimes extend into vessel.4.

Vertical reactor.a.

Skirt support typically used for tall vertical vessels
:
-

Cylindrical shell.-

General support design-

Design for weight, wind, and earthquake.-

Pressure not a factor.-

Temperature also a consideration for materialselection and thermal expansion.5.

Spherical pressurized storage vessel.a.

Spherical storage vessels typically supported on legs.b.

Cross-bracing typically used to absorb wind andearthquake loads.6.

Vertical vessel on lug support.a.

Vessel size limits for lug supports
:
-

1-10 ft diameter.-

2:
1 to 5
:
1 height/diameter ratiob.

Lugs bolted to horizontal structure.