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Regional specialisation in the EU's business economy

Regional specialisation in the EU's business economy

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Published by dmaproiect
This publication presents an analysis of regional specialisation and business concentration within the EU's business
economy based on structural business statistics (SBS) available with a detailed sectoral breakdown.
This publication presents an analysis of regional specialisation and business concentration within the EU's business
economy based on structural business statistics (SBS) available with a detailed sectoral breakdown.

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Published by: dmaproiect on Apr 07, 2010
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Statistics in focus
Industry, trade and services
Author: Ulf JOHANSSON
34/2008
EUROPEAN COMMISSION
Regional specialisation in theEU's business economy
This publication presents an analysis ofregional specialisation and businessconcentration within the EU's businesseconomy based on structural businessstatistics (SBS) available with a detailedsectoral breakdown. It includes a section with aspecial focus on chemicals manufacturing.
Specialisation and concentration
There are considerable disparities betweenEuropean regions as regards the importance ofdifferent activities within the business economy,and in many cases, particularly within industrialactivities, this has widened through the recentexpansion of the EU from 15 to 27 Member States.Conversely, while some activities are characterisedby a relatively even distribution across mostregions, the variation in regional specialisation ishigh in many activities, with often a few regionswith a particularly high degree of specialisation.The share of a particular activity within thebusiness economy gives an idea of which regionsare the most or least specialised in a certainactivity, regardless of whether the region or theactivity considered are large or small. Figure 1shows that there is a wide range in the contributionof manufacturing to non-financial businesseconomy employment, in contrast to constructionand distributive trades. Mining and quarrying,hotels and restaurants, and transport andcommunications are characterised by the fact thatthese activities contribute a similar share to non-financial business economy employment in manyregions, with a few regions being strong outlierswith a high specialisation in these activities.
Figure 1: Degree of regional specialisation in activities (NACE sections) within the EU-27 andNorway, % of non-financial business economy employment, 2005 (1)
Minimum and maximum share (horizontal line), inter-quartile range (box) with half of all regions in the box and aquarter of all regions on each side of it, median share (vertical line in box)
010203040506070DistributionManufacturingReal estate, renting & bus. ActivitiesConstructionTransport & communicationsHotels & restaurantsElec. gas & water supplyMining & quarryingSlaskie (PL22)Zapadne Slovensko (SK02)Severozapaden (BG11)Andalucía (ES61)Kentriki Makedonia (GR12)Ionia Nisia (GR22)land (FI20)Inner London (UKI1)
 
(1) NACE Sections C to I and K; Czech Republic and Norway, 2004; Bulgaria based on preaccession regions; Malta, not available.
 
 
2
34/2008 —
Statistics in focus 
Table 1 shows the most specialised region in eachactivity. Natural endowments play an important rolein activities such as mining and quarrying, andmany regions record negligible or no such activity,with only a very few regions strongly specialised inthese activities, based on coal deposits, or oil andgas.
Table 1: Most specialised region by activity, EU-27 and Norway, % share of non-financial businesseconomy employment, 2005 (1)
MeanStandardName (NUTS code)Share (%)share (%)deviation
Mining & quarrying (C)Slaskie (PL22)11.00.71.5Coal, lignite & peat (10)Slaskie (PL22)c0.31.1Crude petroleum & natural gas (11)North Eastern Scotland (UKM1)c0.20.9Uranium & thorium ores (12)Severovychod (CZ05)c0.00.0Metal ores (13)Övre Norrland (SE08)c0.10.3Other mining & quarrying (14)Alentejo (PT18)c0.20.2Manufacturing (D)Zapadne Slovensko (SK02)59.827.010.8Food & beverages (15)Bretagne (FR52)12.14.01.9Tobacco products (16)Trier (DEB2)c0.10.2Textiles (17)Prov. West-Vlaanderen (BE25)5.80.81.0Wearing apparel; fur (18)Dytiki Makedonia (GR13)11.81.12.1Leather & leather products (19)Marche (ITE3)7.90.40.9Wood & woodproducts (20)Itä-Suomi (FI13)c1.21.0Pulp, paper & paper products (21)Norra Mellansverige (SE06)4.90.60.6Publishing & printing (22)Inner London (UKI1)4.41.20.6Fuel processing (23)Cumbria (UKD1)c0.20.4Chemicals & chemical products (24)Rheinhessen-Pfalz (DEB3)12.41.31.3Rubber & plastic products (25)Auvergne (FR72)9.11.41.1Other non-metallic mineral prod. (26)Swietokrzyskie (PL33)5.51.40.9Basic metals (27)Vychodne Slovensko (SK04)c1.01.4Fabricated metal products (28)Franche-Comté (FR43)9.13.01.6Machinery & equipment n.e.c. (29)Unterfranken (DE26)12.32.72.1Office machinery & computers (30)Southern and Eastern (IE02)1.40.10.2Elec. machinery & apparatus (31)Zapadne Slovensko (SK02)c1.31.3Radio, TV & comm'tion equipment (32)Pohjois-Suomi (FI1A)7.00.60.8Medical, precision & optical instr. (33)Border, Midland & Western (IE01)6.10.70.6Motor vehicles & (semi)-trailers (34)Braunschweig (DE91)c1.62.3Other transport equipment (35)Agder og Rogaland (NO04)6.50.80.9Furniture; manufacturing n.e.c. (36)Warminsko-Mazurskie (PL62)8.11.41.1Recycling (37)Brandenburg - Nordost (DE41)0.70.10.1Electricity, gas & water supply (E)Severozapaden (BG11)9.01.31.1Electricity, gas & hot water supply (40)Severozapaden (BG11)c1.00.9Water supply (41)Stredne Slovensko (SK03)3.10.30.4Construction (F)Andalucía (ES61)28.210.74.9Distributive trades (G)Kentriki Makedonia (GR12)40.126.04.8Motor trades (50)Réunion (FR94)6.83.70.9Wholesale trade (51)Attiki (GR30)15.47.52.2Retail trade & repair (52)Kriti (GR43)24.914.93.6Hotels & restaurants (H)Ionia Nisia (GR22)29.87.94.4Transport, storage & communication (I)Åland (FI20)50.49.23.9Land transport, & pipelines (60)Bratislavsky kraj (SK01)14.94.61.6Water transport (61)Åland (FI20)41.30.42.5Air transport (62)Corse (FR83)7.20.20.6Supporting trans. activities (63)Bremen (DE50)11.91.91.2Post & telecommunications (64)Köln (DEA2)25.72.01.9Real estate, renting, business activities (K)Inner London (UKI1)48.117.06.9Real estate activities (70)Latvija (LV)5.41.90.9Renting (71)Hamburg (DE60)1.70.50.3Computer activities (72)Berks., Bucks. and Oxon (UKJ1)7.81.61.3Research & development (73)Oberbayern (DE21)2.20.30.3Other business activities (74)Inner London (UKI1)36.912.75.3
Most specialised region
 
(1) NACE Sections C to I and K; Czech Republic and Norway, 2004; Bulgaria based on pre-accession regions; Malta, not available.c: confidential. Standard deviation is a measure of statistical dispersion, measuring how widely spread around the mean the values in a data set are, measured in the same unit as the data.
 
 
Statistics in focus 
— 34/2008
3
 
Some manufacturing activities involve firstprocessing stages of agricultural, fishing or forestryproducts, and these may also often be locatedclose to the source of the raw material. Forexample, agricultural and maritime products inBretagne (France) which is the most specialisedregion in food and beverage processing. Severalheavily forested Nordic and Baltic regions arespecialised in the manufacture of wood and woodproducts, and pulp, paper and paper products.Some manufacturing activities that involveprocessing or consuming minerals may be locatedclose to mineral deposits. Swietokrzyskie (Poland)is specialised in other mining and quarrying, as wellas other non-metallic mineral productsmanufacturing.Weather and the environment (natural or manmade) can also play a role: regions within severalcountries traditionally associated with tourism,notably Spain and Greece, are among the mostspecialised in hotels and restaurants, and inactivities that support hotels and restaurants,notably retail trade, and construction (providingtourist infrastructure). Transport services are alsoinfluenced by location, with water transportnaturally important for coastal regions, particularlyislands, while air transport is also important forisland regions and regions with or close to majorcities. Like air transport, specialisation in realestate, renting and business activities may bebased on access to a critical mass of clients(enterprises or households).Figure 2 provides an analysis of the variation inregional specialisation: each point represents oneactivity (NACE division), and its position reflects itsranking (from 1 to 45) in terms of its mean andstandard deviation. An example of a small activitywith a high standard deviation due to exceptionallyhigh levels of specialisation is water transportwhich is among the smallest services NACEdivisions (in terms of employment) and yet has thefourth highest standard deviation among servicesNACE divisions. In contrast, motor trades have oneof the highest mean employment shares and yet interms of its standard deviation it is in the lowesthalf of the ranking.
Figure 2: Variation in regional specialisation in activities (NACE divisions) in the non-financialbusiness economy, EU-27 and Norway, 2005
Ranking according to mean and standard deviation based on shares of non-financial business economy employment(1)
Real estate activities(70)Water transport (61)Motor trades (50)Motor vehicles & (semi)-trailers (34)Basic metals (27)Publishing & printing(22)Wearing apparel; fur(18)Crude petroleum &natural gas (11)Coal, lignite & peat (10)051015202530354045051015202530354045Rank based on mean share
   R  a  n   k   b  a  s  e   d  o  n  s   t  a  n   d  a  r   d   d  e  v   i  a   t   i  o  n
 (1) Standard deviation is a measure of statistical dispersion, measuring how widely spread around the mean the values in a data set are,measured in the same unit as the data.

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