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A General Guide to Mixing

A General Guide to Mixing

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Published by Jack
this is a very important book for mixing
this is a very important book for mixing

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Published by: Jack on May 13, 2008
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SOUNDCRAFT
HARMAN INTERNATIONAL INDUSTRIES LTD.CRANBORNE HOUSE,CRANBORNE ROAD,POTTERS BAR,HERTS,EN6 3JN,UK.TEL: +44 (0)1707 665000FAX: +44 (0)1707 660742EMAIL: info@soundcraft.com
SOUNDCRAFT USA
1449 DONELSON PIKE,NASHVILLE TN 37217,USATEL: 1-615-360-0471FAX: 1-615-360-0273EMAIL: soundcraft-usa@harman.com
www.soundcraft.com
Soundcraft reserves the right to improve or otherwise alter any information supplied in thisdocument or any other documentation supplied hereafter. E&OE 08/01
Part No. ZL0439
Soundcraft Registered Community Trade Mark / RTM No. 000557827
T
HE
S
OUNDCRAFT
G
UIDE TO
M
IXING
 
SECTION 1: STARTING OUT
 AWhat does a Mixer do? 3BGuidelines in Choosing a Mixer. 3CThe Controls - A Description.3Mono Inputs, Stereo Inputs, Subgroups,the Master Section.DSignal Flow.7
SECTION 2: CONNECTINGEQUIPMENT TO YOUR MIXER
 AInput Devices.8BEquipment requiring Inputs and Outputs.9COutput Devices.9
SECTION 3:MIXING TECHNIQUES
 A Choosing the Right Microphone; 10Microphone types, Condenser, Dynamic,Electret. Different Polar Patterns.B Setting up a Basic Mix; 11Setting the Gain, Balancing Fader Levels,Balancing Output Levels.C Using the Mixer’s EQ; 12Fixed EQ. Using a sweep-mid equaliser.D Using Effects Units; 13The different types; Reverb, Delay, Echo,Chorus & Flanging, Pitch Shifters.Setting up an effects loop.Pre and post fade auxiliaries.EUsing Signal Processors; 15The difference between signal processors and effects;Different types of signal processors; Graphic Equalisers,Parametric Equalisers, Gates, Expanders,Compressors/Limiters.Setting up a processor.F Creating a Foldback/Monitor Mix.16
SECTION 4: PA MIXING
 AIntroduction, A Typical Live Performance; Microphones,Cables and Connections, Connecting External Effects andProcessors, Setting Up, Ringing Out: Nulling Room Acoustics, Setting the Mix, Avoiding Feedback.17BLarger Performances; Medium Venues,Large Sized Venues.20CRecording Live.22
SECTION 5:OTHER APPLICATIONS
 AMonitor mixing. 23BSubmixing.24
SECTION 6: IN THE STUDIO
 AEssentials and Ergonomics. 25BTape Machines and Recording media. 25CThe Console.25DSimple Multitrack Recording.26ESimple Multitrack Mixdown.27FUsing a Dedicated In-Line Console.28GRecording Instruments and Voices; Vocals, Drums, ElectricGuitars, Acoustic Guitars, Bass Guitars, Keyboards.28HPlanning a Session.30ICreating a Mix.30 JBalancing the Mix.30
SECTION 7:WIRING UP &CONNECTORS
Balanced and Unbalanced Mic Inputs, Balanced andUnbalanced Line Inputs.31Inserts, Ground Compensated Outputs, ImpedanceBalanced Outputs.31
SECTION 8: GLOSSARY
 An A to Z to save your head!32
   C   O   N   T   E   N   T   S
2
 THE SOUNDCRAFT GUIDE TO MIXING – CONTENTS
 
 STARTING OUT
A. What does a Mixer do?
No matter how sophisticated or expensive, all mixers carry out the same basic function - to blend and control thevolume of a number of input signals, add effects andprocessing where required and route the resulting mix tothe appropriate destination, which could be poweramplifiers, the tracks of a recording device - or both. A mixer is the nerve centre of these sources, and therefore themost vital part of your audio system.
B. Guidelines inChoosing a Mixer
 Audio mixers come in many different sizes and at all pricelevels, so it’s little wonder that people are confused as to what type is actually needed for the job in hand. Howeverthere are several questions you can to ask yourself that willhelp you narrow your search to the most appropriatemodels.What am I going to be using the mixer for - i.e.multitrack recording, live PA work or both?What is my budget?How many sound sources do I have? As a guideline yourmixer needs to have at least as many inputs as soundsources. If you are likely to be buying more equipment inthe future you should budget for extra inputs.What particular mixer facilities
must I have
for my application? i.e. plenty of EQ, auxiliaries, or Direct Outsfor recording.How portable does the mixer need to be?Will I be doing any location work where there wont beany mains power available?Have I read the Soundcraft Guide to Mixing from coverto cover?Once you can answer these questions satisfactorily youshould have a fairly accurate specification for the mixer youneed.
C. The Controls -A Description
This is where we get into the nitty-gritty of  what controls and inputs/outputs you’ll findon a typical mixer. For this example, we’veused a Spirit SX .
If you are already familiar with what the controls on a standard mixer do, then it’s OK to skip tosection 2.
If you find a term particularly difficult, further explanation can be foundin the Glossary (Section 8).
MONO INPUTS
 AMic In
Use this "XLR" input to connect yourmicrophones or DI boxes.
For Mic Input Wiring Explanations see section 7.
BLine In
Use this connector for plugging in "LineLevel" instruments such as keyboards,samplers or drum machines. It can also beused to accept the returns from multitrack tape machines and other recording media.The Line Input is not designed formicrophones and although it may be used, will not provide optimum performance withthem.
For Line Input wiring explanations see section 7.
CInsert Poin
This is used to connect external signalprocessors such as compressors or limiters within the input module. The Insert Pointallows externaldevices to beplaced within theInput Path - seeFig. 1.1.
See Section 2 and 3 for more detail on how to use processors, and Section 7 for information on wiring.
   S   E   C   T   I   O   N   1  :   S  t  a  r  t   i  n  g   O  u  t
3
100151512 129 96 63 30+151512 129 96 63 30+151512 129 96 63 30+100051020304050-60dBu554 43 32 21 10DIRLINEINSMICSENS100HzMIDLF100100HFAUX1PREAUX2POST/ PREAUX3POSTPAN
1050510152030
0NMIXSUBPFL8
 
INSERTMIC/LINEEQPROCESSOR- COMPRESSOR- NOISE GATE- LIMITER- EXPANDER
 ABC
FIG. 1.1

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