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Published by haq nawaz

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Published by: haq nawaz on May 13, 2008
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ORAL AND WRITTEN COMMUNICATION1. Methods of communication :-(a) Verbal - OralWritten(b) Face to face -(c) Non verbal -(d) Media and modes -2. Verbal communication -3. Oral communication -4. How to make oral communication effective5.Written communication6. Comparison of oral and written communication7. Types of written communication8. Face to face communication9. Non verbal communication :- (a) Facial expressions(b)Gestures(c) Body languages(d) Silence10. Time management11. Signs symbols and signatures12.Graphs maps charts and pictograms13. Space and proximity14. Mediaand modes :-(a) Mail(b) Telex(c) Telegraphs(d) Telephone(e) Computers(f) FaxE Commerce(g)15. Written communication :-(a) Need and importance(b) Essentials of good written communication(c) Functions of business letters(d) Language in a business letter (e) Formality in a business letter (f) Parts of business letter :-(i) Head address(ii) Reference number (iii) Rotation(iv) Inside address(v) Attention line(vi) Salutation(vii) Caption (Subject) line(viii) Body of the letter (ix) Signature(x) Post scriptVERBAL COMMUNICA
Any communication that makes use of words written or spoken business organizationmake extensive use of verbal communication.ORAL COMMUNICTIONSpoken words :- Conversations, meetings, conferences, interviews, training sessions,speeches, PA system announcements, speeches telephone talk, public speaking etc. business man must know to communicate effectively with the spoken word as it isquicker and direct used to informs praise, criticize, please inquire. Making oralcommunication effective :-(a) Words to be clearly and properly pronounced( Voice control and pronunciation to be correct)(b) Clarity and precision(c) Brevity(d) Proper tone(e) Correct pitch(f) Right style and vocabulary to suit the situation and the listener (adjust vocabulary, loud men, speed of fluency and accent to attract the listener ADVANTAGES OF ORAL COMMUNICATION (a) Sheds of meaning can be conveyed (using to be, pitch and intensity of voice)(b) Saves time(c) Immediate feedback can be obtained(d)Pursues we and carry conviction(e) Spares money and effort(f) Lessformal(g) Makes the communication of confidential and secret information possible.HOW TO MAKE ORAL COMMUNICATION MORE EFECTIVE1. The words should be clearly and properly pronounced.2. Poor voice control and poor pronunciation act as barriers toCommunication3. Another requirement of effective oral communication is clarity and precision.4. Brevity is very essential, over communication should be guarded against.5. Tropes tone is an important requisite convey the same feeling as the words.6. Use the correct pitch the way the voice moves up or down.7. Use the right register ie. the right style and vocabulary to suit the situation and thelistener.LIMITATIONS OF ORAL COMMUNICATIONCan be misunderstood or misinterpreted more easily. No permanent record of little value from the legal point of viewOnly a good speaker can communicate effectively.Unhelpful for lengthy communicationSomething vital may be missed outPeople can not retain oral messages for a long time ie it lacks permanenceWhen messages are transmitted orally it is not possible to pinpoint the responsibility.
 ADVANTAGES OF WRITTEN COMMUNICATION1. Written communication provides a permanent record.2. Can be used as evidence.3. Less likely to be misunderstood in case of doubt they can be read again.4. Accurate and exact.5. Information can be disseminated widely with the help of printing and duplicatingmachines6. Language used in written communication is less subject to change.7. Can be reviewed when required over a period of time.FACE TO FACE COMMUNICATION ADVANTAGE1. Gestures and facial expressions can be used to reinforce an oral message2. Feed back can be obtained by using ears as well as eyes.3. Communications can bring their personalities to bear on the communication process.DISADVANTAGESDifficult to use where participant groups are spread out.Personal touch and effectiveness of being face to face are lost out. NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATIONUse of other senses to experience non verbal communication .Bartol and MartinCommunication by means of elements and behaviors that are not coded into words Nonverbal aspects of communication account for 75-90 % of what is communicationsmost people believe that the manner in which you say something is more important thanwhat you say. Movements, facial expressions, gesticulations gestures and postures,Physical touch , position nonverbal communication after accompanies verbalcommunication.Study Of Body Languages - PhysiognomySilence - a form of communicationOvercome by emotionSilence means assent ; also conveys lack of interest or concern, apathy, or indifferenceFUNCTIONS OF SILENCE :-To allow one time to think To isolate oneself To hurtTo prevent communicationTo communicate emotional responsesTo say nothingESSENTIALS OF GOOD WRITTEN COMMUNICATIONGood written communication must command attention and get resultsIt must be legibleIt must be carefully plannedIt should be easily understood by the reader.Use the 4 C's of communication clear, correct concise and courtesy

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