Active Fault, Tsunami, and Ground-motion Hazard Assesments
Danny Hilman Natawidjaja
LabEarth (Laboratory for Earth Hazards)Indonesian Institute of Sciences
Indonesia Archipelago is loated on the boundaries of the four major plate tectonics, therefore is proneto earthquake hazards. Assesments of earthquake-disaster potential require comprehensive andaccurate data of individual earthquake source parameters, which are on inter-plate fauklts (majorplate boundaries) and on inra-plate active faults. Data and analysis include maps of active faults onan appropriate scale, historical notes and seismic records of past major earthquakes, Earthquakehazards can be classified into 3(three) categories: (1) Fault-rupture hazards, (2) Ground-motionhazards, (3). Secondary/triggered hazards: landslides and liquefactions, and tsunami if the source ison the bottom of the ocean. Main problem in earthquake hazard evaluations are lack of data of activefault and earthquake-source parameters. For active fault data, there is not even any published mapavailable, except on a very crude-regional scale, which can not be used for earthquake-hazardanalysis. This lack of available data made the fault-rupture hazards not even known to Indonesianpublic. Seismic hazard or more precisely
can be evaluated by two ways: (1).Ground-motion hazard analysis by using one earthquake-fault scenario, (2) Ground-motion hazardanalysis by combining all earthquake sources in the studied region with applying statistic-probabilisticprinciples. The probabilistic seismic(ground-motion) hazard maps (PSHA) for Indonesia have beenmade by several teams, but the problem is that the input seismic-source/active-fault data is verylimited and has no clear technical standard or, perhaps, just relying on back-ground seismic dataanalysis. For the future, the national program on rapid earthquake-hazard assessments has to belaunched, which include: (1) Active fault mapping for the entire Indonesian region, (2) Documentingand formulating data of earthquake-source parameters, (3) Constructing/revising the PSHA map forIndonesia on better quality and technical standards, (4) Implementing long-term research plan foractive faults and earthquake-source parameters as well as long-term planning for earthquakemicrozonation. Earthquake-hazard evaluations need good collaborations among earthquakegeologists, seismologists, and earthquake engineers.Key words: tectonics, active faults, earthquake-source parameters, earthquake hazards, ground-motion hazards, fault-rupture hazards, deterministic analysis, probabilistic analysis.