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Thermodynamics

# Thermodynamics

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08/21/2014

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Thermodynamics
is that branch of the physical sciences thattreats of various phenomena of energy andthe related properties of matter, especiallyof the laws of transformation of heat intoother forms of energy and vice versa.
And the movement of energy from one locationto another.
BASIC PRINCIPLES, CONCEPTS ANDDEFINITIONS
Working Substance -
usually a fluid, in whichenergy can be stored or which it can beremoved.
Fluid
- is a substance that exist, characterizes by
Low resistance to flow
Tendency to assume the shape of itscontainer.
THE THERMODYNAMIC SYSTEM
Is that portion of the universe, an atom, agalaxy, a certain quantity of matter, or acertain volume in space, that one wish tostudy. It is a region enclosed by specific boundaries, which may be imaginary,either fixed or moving.
Two types of systems are considered inthermodynamics analyses:
Closed system (or control mass)
:consistsof a fixed amount of mass. No mass canenter or leave a closed system, but energy,on the other hand, may cross the boundaryin the forms of heat or work. Note:
The mass of a closed system is fixed
(but notnecessarily the volume.
Open system (or control volume)
consistsof a properly selected region in spaceenclosing a device which involves massflow such as a compressor, turbine, heatexchanger, etc ... Both energy and mass maycross the boundary of a control volume,which is called the
control surface
.
STATE -
refers to the condition of the substance asidentified through its properties
Process-
If any one or more properties of a systemchange, the system is said to have undergone a process.
Cycle -
When a certain mass of fluid in a particular state passes a series of process and return to itsinitial state.
SYSTEM OF UNITS:
Isaac Newton’s 2nd Law of Motion- states that if anunbalanced force acts in a body:
The body will accelerate in the direction of theunbalanced force.
The acceleration will be proportional to theunbalanced force and inversely proportional tothe mass of the body.
a α F/m
Therefore:
a = F (gc) / mF=m a / gcEnglish SI
LbfKgm m / s
2
or N

Where:
F = Unbalanced Forcem= Mass of Substance, Lbm , Kgma = observed or local gravitational accelerationgs= standard gravitational constantgc= proportionality constant
@ gc= proportionality constantEng
32.2 Lbm–Ft /Lbf–s
2
MKS
9.8066kgm – m / kgf – s
2
SI
1 kgm – m / N – s
2
@ gs= standard gravitational constantENGMKSSI
32.2 ft / s
2
9.8066 m/ s
2
9.8066 m/ s
2
1 kgf = 9.0866 N = 2.2 lbf  Note: use std. gravitational acceleration ( gs ) if theobserved grav. Acceleration ( a ) not given
THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES
general classifications:Intensive property- is one that isindependent of the mass of the substance. –Pressure, density, specific volume,specific weight, specific gravity,temperature, Specific Internal Energy.Extensive property- is the one that isdependent on the magnitude of the mass of the substance. –Mass, Weight, Volume, Energy
Mass & WeightMass , m –
is the quantity of matter in a body.
Weight W
– the force exerted by gravity on a givenmass.
W = m g
ENGMKSSI
LbfKgf NExample:
What is the weight of a 66kgm man @ standardcondition in Kgf?
Specific Volume, Density & Specific WeightDensity ρ,- of any substance is it s mass (notweight) per unit volume.

ρ = m / V
Eng MKS SIlbm / ft
3
kgm / m
3
or kgm / L kg / m
3
Mass density of water @ sea level when it is @ stdTemp. and Press ( STP)ρ= 62.4 lbm / ft
3
= 1 kgm / L = 1000 kgm / m
3
Specific volume
– volume per unit mass
v = V / m = 1 / ρBasic Constants for Volume
ENG MKS SI1ft
3
= 7.481 gal` = 28.31 cm
3
1000 L = 1 m
3

Weight Density / Specific weight Γ
– force exerted bygravity per unit volume.
Γ = W / VΓ = m g / V gcΓ = ρ g / gc
Eng MKSSIlbf / ft
3
kgf / m
3
N / m
3
Specific gravity ( SG) / Relative Density (RD
) – is theratio of the mass density of a substance to the massdensity of an equal volume of water
Basis: 4C Temp of water at its max. density