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Logic Complete Assignment

# Logic Complete Assignment

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01/30/2011

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By:Ihsan UllahBBA 5
th
EveningRoll No 278

What is Proposition?
Proposition is a statement which either asserts or denies something.Or Proposition is group of ideas of which anything is affirmed or deniedFor ancient thinkers, proposition is the enunciation of truth or falsity.
Types of Proposition
Categorical: A categorical proposition unites or separates two concepts by meansof the linking verb “to be.”
Hypothetical: A hypothetical proposition unites or separates, not two concepts buttwo enunciations by means of a non-verb copulaExamples of Categorical PropositionsSome sharks are not dangerous.Every kind act is meritorious.
Examples of Hypothetical PropositionsIf it is a car, it has a motor.If you are a Pakistani, then you are a native of Pakistan.
Every proposition has quality and quantityQuality: the quality of a proposition maybe affirmative or negativeA proposition that has “no” or “not” is negative. This is oftentimes determined by thecopula
PROPERTIES OF PROPOSITIONS
Quantity: the quantity of a proposition is either universal or particular.
The proposition is universal when what is being affirmed or denied of the subjectterm is its whole extension and particular when what is being affirmed or deniedis just part of its extension.
THE FOUR CATEGORICALS
A – stands for affirmative and universal propositions (All S is P)
Examples: All bachelors are unmarried men.Every butterfly is an insect.
I – stands for affirmative and particular propositions (Some S is P)
Ex. Some Indians are Moslems.
Some Peshawar University students are naughty.

E – stands for negative and universal propositions ( No S is P or All S is not P)
Examples: No speaker of Congress in the Philippines has become the president.
No bird has four legs.
Assam is not a Pakistan province.
0 – stands for negative and particular propositions (Some S is not P or Not All Sis P)
Examples: Some senators are not lawyers
Not every journalist gives accurate and well-founded report.
No one who died for his country died in vain.
Some students in this class are Pukhtoons.
Dr. Qadeer is a national hero.
Most congressmen are not giving up their pork barrel.
Three senators are running for the presidency.
No one is above the law.
The mantis is an insect.
Not every plant bears fruits.
An argument is a group of propositions in which one proposition is asserted to betrue on the basis of the other proposition
An argument is not categorized as true or false but as either logical or illogical,valid or invalid sound or unsound
RECOGNIZING ARGUMENTS
An argument is a group of propositions in which one proposition is asserted to betrue on the basis of the other proposition
An argument is not categorized as true or false but as either logical or illogical,valid or invalid sound or unsound
ARGUMENTS
The proposition which is claimed to be true is called the “conclusion” while the proposition which serves as support of the conclusion is called “premise.”
Premise-indicators:Some, because, for, given that, as indicated by, if
Conclusion-indicatorsTherefore, thus, hence, so, accordingly, consequently

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