CLYNES & KLINE
complex functioning as an inte-grated homeostatic system un-consciously, we propose the term"Cyborg." The Cyborg deliberatelyincorporates exoge-nous componentsextending the self-regulatory controlfunction of the organism in order toadapt it to new environments.If man in space, in addition toflying his vehicle, must con-tinuouslybe checking on things and makingadjustments merely in order to keephimself alive, he becomes a slave tothe ma-chine. The purpose of the Cy-borg, as well as his own ho-meostaticsystems, is to provi-de anorganizational sys-tem in which suchrobot-like problems are taken care of automatically and unconsciously,leaving man free to explore, tocreate, to think, and to feel.One device helpful to con-sideration of the construction of Cyborgs, which is already a-vailable,is the ingenious osmo-tic pressurepump capsule de-veloped by S. Rosefor conti-nuous slow injections of bio-chemically active substances at abiological rate. The capsule isincorporated into the organism andallows administration of a selecteddrug at a particular or-gan and at acontinuous vari-able rate, withoutany attention on the part of theorganism.Capsules are already avail-ablewhich will deliver as little as 0.01ml/day for 200 days, and there is noreason why this time could not beextended con-siderably. Theapparatus has al-ready been used onrabbits and rats, and for continuoushepa-rin injection in man. No un-toward general effect on health wasnoted when the injector was buried inanimals. As long as five
years ago,an injector 7 cm long and 1.4 cm indiame-ter, weighing 15 gm, was suc-cessfully buried under the skin of ratsweighing 150-250 gin. The photo
Page 27 shows a rat weighing 220gm with an injector
The combination of an osmoticpressure pump capsule with sensingand controlling mechanisms can forma con-tinuous control loop which willact as an adjunct to the body's ownautonomous controls. In this manner,these controls can be changed to thedesired per-formance characteristicsunder various environmental condi-tions. If these characteristics weredetermined, such a sys-tem would bepossible today with the selection of appro-priate drugs.For example, systolic bloodpressure may be sensed, com-paredto a reference value based on thespace conditions en-countered, andregulated by letting the differencebetween sensed and referencepressures control administration of an adrenergic or vasodilator drug. Of course, any such system presupposesthat we would be cognizant of whatoptimum blood pressure would beunder various space conditions.While it is quite difficult to setup per limits to "natural" humanphysiological and psy-chologicalperformance, we can take as minimalthe capabilities demonstrated undercontrol conditions such as yoga orhypnosis. The imagination isstretched by the muscular con-trol of which even the under-graduate at aYoga College is capable, andhypnosis per se may prove to have adefinite place in space travel,although there is much to be learnedabout the phenomena of dis-sociation, generalization of ins-tructions, and abdication of executivecontrol.We are now working on a newpreparation which may greatlyenhance hypnotizability, so thatpharmacological and hypnoticapproaches may be symbioticallycombined.
Let us now turn our attention tosome of the special physiological andpsychologi-cal problems involved inspace travel, and see how Cyborg dy-namics may help achieve betterunderstanding and utilization of man's natural abilities.
For flights of relatively short or moderate du-ration-a few weeks or even a fewmonths-it would appear desirable tokeep the astronaut continuouslyawake and fully alert. The extensionof normal functioning through theuse of that group of drugs known aspsychic energizers, with ad-junctivemedication, for this purpose is apresent-day real-ity. In flights lastinga month or two, no more than a fewhours a day of sleep would be requir-ed in the normal environment if suchdrugs were employed. Tests indicateefficiency tends to increase, ratherthan decrea-se, under such a regime,and extended usage appears entirelyfeasible.
One sub-system of the Cyborg would involvea sensor to detect radia-tion levelsand an adaptation of the Roseosmotic pump which wouldautomatically inject pro-tectivepharmaceuticals in ap-propriatedoses. Experiments at the AF Schoolof Aviation Me-dicine alreadyindicate an in-crease in radiationresistance re-sulting from combinedadmi-nistration of aminoethylisothio-roninm and cysteine to mon-keys.
Metabolic Problems and Hy- pothermic Controls.
In the case of prolonged space flight, the estimatedconsumption of 10 lb a day forhuman fuel-2 lb of oxygen, 4 lb of fluid, and 4 lb of food-poses a majorpro-blem. During a flight of a year orlonger, assuming that the ve-hiclewas operating satisfactori-ly, therewould be little or no rea