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2chapter Two

2chapter Two

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Published by: cooldool05 on Apr 08, 2010
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CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW2.1Definition of Terms2.1.1Traditional Buildings:
A tradition could be described as a long established action or pattern of behaviourin a community or group of people, often one that has been handed down from generationto generation(Encarta dictionaries, 2007).A traditional building, therefore, could be defined as any building that is relatedto, or, designed based on traditional values, materials and methods of construction.
Conservation could bedefined as the preservation, management, and care onatural and cultural resources. It could also be defined as the keeping or protecting of something from change, loss or damage.
Preservation, however, could be defined as the guiding of something from danger,harm, or injury. Preservation could also be defined as the maintenance of something,especially something of historic value in an unchanged condition.Preservation particularly deals with cultural property. It entails protecting culturalproperty by controlling its environment, thus preventing agents of decay and damagefrom becoming active (Maddex, 1985).
Preservation also includes control of internal humidity, temperature and light, aswell as measures to prevent fire, arson,theft and vandalism, and to provide for generalcleaning and prevention of decay, through timely repairs and intervention.
From the Latin word ‘mouseoin’ meaning ‘place of the muses’;
amuseum is aninstitution where objects of artistic, historical or scientific importance and value are kept,studied and put on display.
2.2Significance of Conservation
Old buildings convey an aura of the past to the present generation. They tend tomake us appreciate the beauty of the architecture and the technicalities of engineeringthat existed before our time. However, these buildings will keep wearing away, as timegoes on, and with them the values that are cherished, unless there is some sort of intervention, hence the importance of conservation.Conservation of traditional and historic buildings helps, therefore, to retain andprotect them, so that future generations can learn about the history and constructiontechniques associated with old buildings and structures (Pam, 2002) in Aliu (2006).
2.3Significanceand History of Museum Buildings
A museum building serves as a place for documentation, exhibition and educationfor the present generation as regards what has happened in the past. However, for any
meaningful plan or projection into the future, anadequate knowledge and understandingof the past and present is required in a perfect synthesis if any success is to be achieved.This is the role of the museum building in the society. Museum buildings do notonly serve as places where object of historyand relics are kept, but also as touristavenues themselves excluding the relics that they contain.
The earliest museums, resembled today’s libraries and scholarly institutes and
were established as sources of inspiration and enlightenment. At his capital
city of ‘Tal al
Amarinah in Egypt, Pharaoh Akhenaton (ruler from about 1353 to 1335 B.C) erected alarge library in which he stored the many gifts and tributes that allied rulers and subjectpeoples had given him(Encarta encyclopedia, 2007).
The term ‘museum’ was first applied to a state
-supported research in Alexandria,Egypt, founded by king Ptolemy 1 early in the 3
century B.C to foster scientific studies.Also, religion, especially Christianity in the Middle Ages played a great role in thedevelopment and growth of museums, as churches became the focal point for collectingreligious relics, jewels, precious metals etc.Collections in the Islamic world and Asia however took the form of spoils of war.Collections of art works by the nobility also playedan important role in developingmuseums as can be seen in palaces and temples of China and Japan e.g. Shosoin (ShosoHouse) at Todai ji (Todai temple).
In West Africa, however, one of the most prominent museums is Nigeria’s
National Museumin Lagos, whichhas masks, ancient terracotta, figures and a topcollection of the famous bronze sculpture and ivory carvings produced by the Beninkingdom, which flourished from the 15
to the 17
century(Encarta encyclopedia, 2007).

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