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Nanodrug in Cancer Treatment

Nanodrug in Cancer Treatment

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Published by Brijesh Singh Yadav
This paper describe the the role of nano drug in cancer treatment.
This paper describe the the role of nano drug in cancer treatment.

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Categories:Types, Research, Science
Published by: Brijesh Singh Yadav on Apr 09, 2010
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11/26/2012

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t www.scholarsresearchlibrary.com
 
Scholars Research Library
Archives of Applied Science Research, 2010, 2 (1) 37-51
(http://scholarsresearchlibrary.com/archive.html)
ISSN 0975-508XCODEN (USA)
A
ASRC9
 
37
Scholar Research Library
 
The Role of Nanodrugs for Targeted Drug Delivery in Cancer Treatment
Sweta Gupta
1
, Brijesh Singh Yadav
1
, Rajesh Kesharwani
1
, K. P. Mishra
1
, N. K. Singh
2
 
1
United Research Centre, UIT Campus, Allahabad, India
2
 Department of Applied Mechanics (Biotechnology) MNNIT, Allahabad, India
______________________________________________________________________________
Abstract
Nanotechnology has achieved the status as one of the critical research endeavors of the early 21
st
 century. Nanoscale devices and components are smaller than human cells (10,000 – 20,000 nmin diameter) & organelles and similar in size to large biological macromolecules such as enzyme& receptors – Hb for e.g., is approx 5 nm in diameter. While the lipid bilayer surrounding thecells are on the order of 6 nm thick. Nanoscale devices are smaller than 50 nm can easily entermost cells, while those smaller than 20 nm can transit out of blood vessels. Therefore, the size of the Nanoscale devices allows them to interact readily with biomolecules on the cell surface andwithin the cell, often in ways that do not alter the behavior and biochemical properties of thosemolecules. Such ready access to the interior of a living cell affords the opportunity forunprecedented gains on the clinical and basic frontiers. Nanotechnology research is generating avariety of constructs giving cancer researchers great flexibility in their efforts to change theparadigm of cancer diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. In this study we focused how CancerNanotechnology is to develop safer and more effective diagnostic and therapeutic modalities forCancer therapy.
Keywords:
Nanotechnology, Nanoscale devices, Lipid bilayer, Cancer therapy
 ______________________________________________________________________________Introduction
A nanometer is billionth of a meter, which is about 1/80,000 of the diameter of a human hair, orten times the diameter of a hydrogen atom. It manipulates the chemical and physical propertiesof a substance on molecular level. Nanotechnology alters the way we think, it blurs theboundaries between physics, chemistry and biology, the elimination of these boundaries willpose many challenges and new directions for the organization of education and research.We define nanoscience as the study of phenomena and manipulation of materials at atomic,molecular and macromolecular scales, where properties differ significantly from those at a larger
 
Brijesh Singh Yadav
 
et al Arch. Apll. Sci. Res., 2010: 2(1)37-51_____________________________________________________________________________
 
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Scholar Research Library
 scale; and nanotechnologies as the design, characterization, production and application of structures, devices and systems by controlling shape and size at the nanometer scale. Thesetechnologies have been applied to improve drug delivery and to overcome some of the problemsof drug delivery for cancer treatment.The bulk properties of materials often change dramatically with Nano ingredients. Compositesmade from particles of Nano-size ceramics or metals smaller than 100 nanometers can suddenlybecome much stronger than predicted by existing materials-science models. For example, metalswith a so-called grain size of around 10 nanometers are as much as seven times harder andtougher than their ordinary counterparts with grain sizes in the hundreds of nanometers. Thecauses of these drastic changes stem from the weird world of quantum physics. The bulk properties of any material are merely the average of all the quantum forces affecting all theatoms. As you make things smaller and smaller, you eventually reach a point where theaveraging no longer works.
The properties of materials can be different at the Nanoscale for two main reasons
First, nanomaterials have a relatively larger surface area when compared to the same mass of material produced in a larger form. This can make materials more chemically reactive (in somecases materials that are inert in their larger form are reactive when produced in their Nanoscaleform), and affect their strength or electrical properties.Second, quantum effects can begin to dominate the behavior of matter at the Nanoscale -particularly at the lower end - affecting the optical, electrical and magnetic behavior of materials.Materials can be produced that are Nanoscale in one dimension (for example, very thin surfacecoatings), in two dimensions (for example, nanowires and Nanotubes) or in all three dimensions(for example, Nanoparticles).
Cancer
 Cancer rapidly overtakes heart diseases as number one killer in America. In 2005, there were559,312 cancer deaths in US. In 2006, over 500,000 Americans died due to cancer, and in 2007alone, Cancer killed 8,000,000 people in the world. Cancer is currently the cause of 13% of alldeaths. This figure is 30% in U.K, and 25% in US. Cancer has become the leading cause of death. The risk of developing Cancer is 1-in-2 for men and 1- in-3 for women.Cancer is a highly complex disease that causes cells to divide too rapidly, destroy surroundingtissues and even spread to other parts of the body. Cancer is usually caused by a mutation inDNA, caused by mutagens, e.g. X-rays and gamma- rays. Carcinogens in cigarettes e.g. tar andbenzene is another cause. These changes activate Oncogenes in cancer cells, which causeexcessive growth of the cells. Also tumor suppressant genes in cancer cells are deactivated,causing the cells to loose control over their usual cell cycle. This also stops the cancer cells frominteracting with these cells of the Immune system. When a cell is beyond repair, they are killedby apoptosis, but cancer cells are able to avoid this process due to the tumor suppressant genesbeing deactivated.
 
Brijesh Singh Yadav
 
et al Arch. Apll. Sci. Res., 2010: 2(1)37-51_____________________________________________________________________________
 
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 The most common Cancer treatments are limited to chemotherapy, radiation treatment, andsurgery. Limitations in Cancer treatment are a result of challenges seen in cancer therapies today,including lack of early disease detection, non-specific systemic distribution, inadequate drugconcentration reaching the tumor, and inability to monitor therapeutic responses. Poor drugdelivery and residence at the target site leads to significant complications, such as Multiple DrugResistance. Chemotherapy can cause a variety of ailments, including hair loss, digestiveproblems, nausea, and lack of energy and mouth ulcers. Chemotherapy fails to cure cancerbecause some tumor cells develop resistance to multiple anticancer drugs. Resistance developswhen cancer cells begin expressing a protein p-glycoprotein, which pumps anticancer drugs outof the cell as quickly as they cross through the cell’s outer membrane.
Why Nanotechnology in Cancer
 Nanoscale devices are somewhere from 100-1000 times smaller than human cells. They aresimilar in size to large biological molecules such as enzymes and receptors. As an e.g.Hemoglobin, the molecule that carries oxygen in RBC is approximately 5nm in diameter.Nanoscale devices smaller than 50nm can easily enter most cells, while those smaller than 20nmcan move out of blood vessels as they circulate through the body.Because of their small size, Nanoscale devices can readily interact with the biomolecules on thesurface of cells and inside of cells, without changing the behavior and biological properties of these molecules [1]. By gaining access to so many areas of the body, they have the potential todetect disease and deliver treatment in ways unimagined before now. And since biologicalprocesses including events that lead to cancer, occur at the Nanoscale at and inside cells,Nanotechnology offers a wealth of tools that provide cancer researchers, a new and innovativeways to diagnose and treat cancer. Nanoparticles also carry the potential for targeted and time-release drugs. A potent dose of drugs could be delivered to a specific area but engineered torelease over a planned period to ensure maximum effectiveness and the patient's safety.Because of their small size, Nanoparticles can accommodate tens of thousands of atoms or smallmolecules, such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging contrast agent gadolinium[2] , creating theopportunities for improved detection sensitivity of diseases such as Cancer at its earliest stage.One more benefit of use of Nanoparticles in cancer is due to their surface chemistry.Modification of Nanoparticles outer layer allows a large variety of chemical, molecular, andbiological entities to be covalently or otherwise bound to it. Manipulation of this corona confersadvantageous properties to the particles, such as increased solubility and biocompatibility.Attaching hydrophobic polymers to the surface, such as Polyethylene glycol, greatly increasesthe hydration (i.e. solubility) of the Nanoparticles and can protect attached proteins fromenzymatic degradation when used for in vivo application [3]. The surface addition of PEG(“pegylation”) and other hydrophilic polymers also increases the in vivo compatibility of nanoparticles. When injected intravascularly, uncoated Nanoparticles are cleared rapidly injectedintravascularly, uncoated nanoparticles are cleared rapidly from the blood stream by the ReticuloEndothelial System [4]. Nanoparticles coated with hydrophilic polymers have prolonged half-lives, believed to result from decreased opsonization and subsequent clearance by macrophages[5].

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