Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Save to My Library
Look up keyword
Like this
0Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
RFID Project

RFID Project

Ratings: (0)|Views: 30|Likes:
Published by Manzuhonnur

More info:

Published by: Manzuhonnur on Apr 09, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as DOC, PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

05/12/2014

pdf

text

original

 
EMBEDDED PREPAID ENERGY METER WITH OVER VOLTAGE AND OVERLOAD PROTECTION SYSTEM
1.1INTRODUCTION:
In recent years, Indian power sector is facing serious problems in terms of lean revenuecollection in lieu of energy supplied and increasing energy requirements. All the stepstaken so far, regarding the improvement of the power scenario, are concerning the humanfactor of the system but the metering and meter-reading system has to improve if revenuecollection is to be increased.Electronic energy meters are replacing traditional electromechanical meters inmany residential, commercial and industrial applications because of the versatility andlow-cost afforded by electronic meter designs. In addition to that an electronic design can protect against meter tampering and theft of service. An electronic energy meter can alsoenable automatic meter reading (AMR), where energy metering data is transmitted to theutility over an RF, power line or even infrared communications link. Improved accuracyand lower power consumption are other benefits of electronic metering. With amechanical meter, the error in the basic energy usage measurement is on the order of 1%.But with an electronic implementation, it is possible to reduce that error to less than0.1%. Moreover, running the mechanical meter with its continuously spinning dial mayrequire hundreds of milliamps where as that power consumption can be reduced to acouple milliamps in an electronic energy meter, producing big power savings for theutility. Electronic meter designs also change the economics of manufacturing energymeters. A single hardware design may be customized for different customers and marketsthrough changes in software. In addition, calibrating the finished meter is much easier with an electronic meter design. Another consideration is the demand for mechanical-meter replacements that are as inexpensive as possible. In parts of the developing worldwhere many new customers are being connected to the grid, the low cost of the electronicmeter is its main attraction.Electrical energy is measured by means of energy meter (watt-hour meter).Energy meter is an integrating instrument and takes in to account both of the quantitiesi.e. Power and time the product of which gives energy. Traditional energy monitoringsystem is done through electromechanical energy meter installed in the premises of customer. This present system is not to expected satisfaction to the energy supplying
Dept.Electronics & comm. EnggSiddaganga polytechnic, Tumkur-3
1
 
EMBEDDED PREPAID ENERGY METER WITH OVER VOLTAGE AND OVERLOAD PROTECTION SYSTEM
authorities. It has many drawbacks like, some consumer manipulating the meter to causeit to under register or even run backwards and in some cases various tamperingtechniques are employed like breaking the meter housing and jamming the mechanism,and bypass the energy meter. There has been an instance in which the representative hadnot been gone to site to take the actual reading but guessed it depending on the lastreading, even though consumers are effectively using power without paying for it, takingall these facts contribute for theft which is heavy loss to the power supplying company.However, the advent of low cost microcontrollers enables the development of acost effective and higher precision electronic prepaid energy meter for residential andindustrial use where user will pay the amount in advance and then uses power untilvalidity . Where the added precision justifies the necessary investment and helps inavoiding theft of energy.
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Lot of investigation is carried towards the development of modern and more precise pre-paid energy meters for customers and power supplying company. A brief review of literature survey carried out in this regard is discussed in this section.P.A.V.Loss, M.M. Lamego, G.C.D. Soma and J.L.F. Vieira [1] described a brief literature on “A Single Phase Microcontroller Based Energy Meter”. The other importantstudies are electronic meter does not possess any rotating parts, and the energyconsumption can be easily read from a four digits display. Besides that, energyconsumption is stored in the microcontroller EEPROM memory. This action is necessaryto ensure a correct measurement even in the event of an electrical outage or brown out.As soon as the supply is restored, the meter restarts with the stored values.S. Naiman, M.M. Kissaka and N. H. Mvungi [2] discuss on “Energy Meter Reading and Tampering protection through Powerline Communication Channelimportant studies are the use of remote monitoring system to overcome the problem using powerline communication has been identified as a solution. In this paper they haveidentify different kinds of tampering and present simulated results of tampering detectionRahul Anand, Saptarshi De, and A Naveen [3] present useful information on“Design and Development of Vigilant Energy Metering System (VEMS) and its
Dept.Electronics & comm. EnggSiddaganga polytechnic, Tumkur-3
2
 
EMBEDDED PREPAID ENERGY METER WITH OVER VOLTAGE AND OVERLOAD PROTECTION SYSTEM
Applications” VEMS is an intelligent solution to the revenue crisis and energy thefts prevalent in Indian power sector. Technical advances in metering technology and the useof information technology will result in enhanced efficiency, revenues, and better management and customer services. It will also facilitate load forecasting and control,identify potential areas of theft, losses and take measures to rectify it.S.A. Al-Qatariand A.R. Nu-Ali [4] discuss about “Microcontroller basedautomated billing system” they present digital energy modules equipped with credit cardreading capability and charge automatically. Also, all service metering modules arefacilitated with an automatic service connection and disconnection based on the availablecredit. The software structure commands the whole process via the microcontroller input/output ports.I.Hakki Cavdar [5] identifies illegal electricity usage and present a paper on “ASolution to Remote Detection of Illegal Electricity Usage via Power LineCommunications” where
AMR system via PLC is set in a power deliverysystem, a detection system for illegal electricity usage may be easilyadded in the existing PLC network. In the detection system, the seconddigitally energy meter chip is used and the value of energy is stored. The recorded energy is compared with the value at the main kilowatt-hour meter. In the case of the difference between two recorded energydata, an error signal is generated and transmitted via PLC network.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
1.Tradition energy monitoring system is done by electromechanical energy meter where the consumer manipulate the meter to cause it under register or even run backwards and in some cases tampering techniques will be employed like breaking the housing , jamming the mechanism and bypassing the energy meter to effectively use electric energy.2.In this busy world consumer has to wait in a long queue to pay the electricity bill.3.There is no protection to our house hold electrical equipment as well as our lifedue to over load and over voltage condition respectively.4.Automated meter reading is not available in present mechanical energy meter which could convey theft message to power supplying authority.
Dept.Electronics & comm. EnggSiddaganga polytechnic, Tumkur-3
3

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->