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International Treaties at in Islam - Theory and Practice in the Light of Siyar (Islamic International Law)

International Treaties at in Islam - Theory and Practice in the Light of Siyar (Islamic International Law)

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International Treaties
{Mu'abadaf)
in Islam: Theory and Practice in the Light of
Siyar
(Islamic International Law)Labeeb Ahmed BsoulInstitute of Islamic StudiesMcGill University, MontrealAugust 2003A thesis submitted to the Faculty of Graduate Studies and Research in partialfulfillment of the requirement of the degree of Doctor of Philosophy
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AbstractThis dissertation seeks to explain the viewpoint of Islamic international law
{siyar)
with respect to the various aspects of treaties
{mu'abadat)
with non-Muslims.The
siyar
deals with (the notion) of mutual relations between Muslims and non-Muslims during times of war and peace, and thus has become an intrinsic branch ofthe Shari'a. The varying nature of
siyar
and its changing interpretation throughoutIslamic history captured the attention of
a
number of jurists and historians from boththe classical and modem times, whose works have been frequently consultedthroughout this study. In the course of classical and pre-modem Islamic history,treaty-making continued to evolve and contributed to shaping both political andsocial relations between Muslims and non-Muslims. Non-Muslim residents in Islamicterritories
{dar
al-Islam),
such as the
abl al-dhimma
and
ahl al-aman,
were dealt withas existing identities within Islam and were also dealt with by the means of contracts(
(
aqd),
which determined their status under
siyar.
Relations between Muslims andnon-Islamic territories
{dar
al-harb)
were detennined by the conditions of peace andwar, and treaties between the two were regulated according to the precedent set by
siyar.
The treaties selected for this dissertation cover the full spectrum of whatMuslims and non-Muslims could do to develop and protect the interest of theircommunities. Thus, this study aims to shed some bight on a relatively untouchedbranch of Islamic law, while also elucidating the social ramifications of legal theoryand practice.
 
ResumeLe but de cette dissertation est d'expliquer la position de la loi islamiqueinternationale
(siyar)
vis-a-vis les complexites diverses des traites
(mu'ahadat)
avec lesnon-Musulmans. Le
siyar
traite des rapports mutuels entre Musulmans et non-Musulmans en temps de guerre et de paix, et par consequent est devenu une disciplineintrinseque de la
shan'a.
Le caractere changeant du
siyar,
et la facon variee dont il a eteinterprets durant toute l'histoire islamique ont capte
1'attention
de nombreux juristes ethistoriens de
1'epoque
classiques a nos jours, et leurs ouvrages sont consultes a plusieursreprises dans
1
etude presente. L'art de conclure un traite a une importance unique dansla civilisation islamique, et ainsi merite qu'on y prete attention particuliere. Au cours del'histoire classique et premoderne de l'lslam, l'art de conclure un traite a continue as'elaborer et a exerce une certaine influence sur les rapports politiques et sociaux entreMusulmans et non-Musulmans. Les habitants non-Musulmans vivants dans desterritoires islamiques
(dar al-Mam),
tel que les
ahl al-dhimma
et les
ahl al-amia,
avientleurs propres droits et identites sous la loi islamique, et etaient sujets de contrats
(
l
aqd),
qui determinaient leur statut selon le
siyar.
Les rapports entre les Musulmans et lesterritories non-musulmans
(dar
al-barb)
etaient establis selon les conditions de guerre etde paix, et les traites entre les deux etaient regies selon le precedent cree par le
siyar.
Lestraites choisis pour cette dissertation presentent une gamine complete de ce que lesMusulmans et non-Musulmans peuvent faire afin de developper et proteger les interetsde leurs communautes. Par consequent, cette etude vise eclairer une discipline plutotmeconnue de la loi islamique, et en meme temps elucider les ramifications de la theorie etI'exercice de la loi pour la societe.

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