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[Hide][Help us withtranslations!]
 
Human rights
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to:navigation,search  This article
needsreorganization
to meet Wikipedia's
quality standards
. There isgood information here, but it is poorly organized; editors are encouraged to be boldandmake changes to the overall structure toimprove this article.
(February 2010)
 
 
ights
 
 
Theoretical distinctions
 N
atural and legal rights 
 
Claim rights and liberty rights 
 
 N
egative and positive rights 
 
IndividualandGroup rights 
 
Human rights divisions
Three generations 
 
Civil and political 
 
Economic, social and cultural 
ight holders
Animals
·
 
Humans
 Men
·
 Women Fathers
·
 Mothers Children
·
 Youth
·
 Fetuses
·
 Students 
 
Indigenous
·
 Minorities
·
 LGBT 
 
Other groups of rights
Authors'
·
 Digital
·
 Labor  
 
Linguistic
·
 Reproductive 
 
v 
 d 
 e 
Human rights
are "basicrightsandfreedomsto which all humans are entitled."
[1]
Proponents of 
 
the concept usually assert that allhumansare endowed with certain entitlements merely byreason of being human.
[2]
Human rights are thus conceived in auniversalistandegalitarian 
 
fashion. Such entitlements can exist as shared norms of actual human moralities, as justifiedmoral norms or natural rightssupported by strong reasons, or aslegal rightseither at a national
 
level or withininternational law.
[3]
However, there is no consensus as to precise nature of what in
 
 particular should or should not be regarded as a human right in any of the preceding senses, andthe abstract concept of human rights has been a subject of intense philosophical debate andcriticism.The modern conception of human rights developed in the aftermath of theSecond World War , in part as a response to theHolocaust, culminating in the signing of the
Univ
ersal Declarat 
ion
 
of  
 
 
 Huma
n
R
igh
ts
by theUnited
 N
ations General Assemblyin 1948. However, while the phrase
 
"human rights" is relatively modern the intellectual foundations of the modern concept can betraced through thehistory of philosophyand the concepts of natural law rightsandlibertiesas far 
 
 back as the city states of Classical Greeceand the development of Roman Law. The true forerunner of human rights discourse was theenlightenmentconcept of natural rightsdeveloped
 
 by figures such asJohn LockeandImmanuel Kantand through the political realm in the in the
Uni
ted States B
i
ll 
of  
R
igh
ts
and the
 Declarat 
ion
 
of  
h
e R
igh
ts
of  
Ma
n
a
n
of  
h
e C 
i
iz
e
n
.
³
 
All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowedwith reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of  brotherhood.
´
 ²Article 1 of theUnited
 N
ations Universal Declaration of Human Rights(UDHR)
[4]
 
Contents
[hide]
y
 
1 History 
y
 
2 International law 
o
 
2.1 Universal Declaration of Human Rights 
 
o
 
2.2 Treaties 
o
 
2.3 Humanitarian Law 
o
 
2.4 Universal Jurisdiction 
y
 
3 International organizations 
o
 
3.1 United
 N
ations 
 
3.1.1 Human Rights Council 
 
3.1.2 Security Council 
 
3.1.3 Other U
 N
Treaty Bodies 
o
 
3.2
 N
ongovernmental Organizations 
y
 
4 Regional human rights 
o
 
4.1 Africa 
o
 
4.2 Americas 
o
 
4.3 Asia 
o
 
4.4 Europe 
o
 
4.5 Oceania 
y
 
5 Philosophies 
o
 
5.1
 N
atural rights 
o
 
5.2 Social contract 
o
 
5.3 Reciprocity 
o
 
5.4 Soviet concept of human rights 
o
 
5.5 Other theories of human rights 
y
 
6
Critiques of human rights 
o
 
6
.1 Marxist Critique of Human Rights 
y
 
7
Concepts in human rights 
o
 
7
.1 Indivisibility and categorization 
 
7
.1.1 Indivisibility 
 
7
.1.2 Categorization 
o
 
7
.2 Universalism vs. cultural relativism 
o
 
7
.3 State and non-state actors 
o
 
7
.4 Theory of value and property 
y
 
8 Legal issues 
o
 
8.1 Human rights vs. national security 
o
 
8.2 Human rights violations 
y
 
9 Currently debated rights 
o
 
9.1 Environmental rights 
o
 
9.2 Future generations 
o
 
9.3 Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender (LGBT) rights 
o
 
9.4 Trade 
o
 
9.5 Water  
o
 
9.
6
Crime and Punishment 
o
 
9.
7
Fetal rights 
o
 
9.8 Reproductive rights 
o
 
9.9 Medicine 
y
 
10 See also 
y
 
11 References 
y
 
12 Bibliography 

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