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Brain Computer Interface

Brain Computer Interface

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by

ARUN KUMAR YADAV
by

ARUN KUMAR YADAV

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Published by: ARUNKUMARYADAV008009 on Apr 11, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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02/19/2011

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ARUN KUMAR YADAV ROLL NO: 0600115008
Page | 1
CONTENTS
1.
 
Introduction2
.
 
P
urpose3
.
 
Wha
t is br
a
in computer interf 
a
cing ?4
.
 
ese
a
rc
h
 5
.
 
e
ha
bilit
a
tion6
.
 
H
istoric
a
l rese
a
rc
h
on br
a
in impl
a
nts7
.
 
B
r
a
in impl
a
nts infiction
a
nd p
h
ilosop
hy
 8
.
 
Wha
t is br
a
in computer interf 
a
cing ?9
.
 
A
nim
a
l
BC
I rese
a
rc
h
 
10.
 
Ea
rl
y
work 
11.
 
P
rominent rese
a
rc
h
successes
1
2
.
 
MEG
 
a
nd
MR 
I
1
3
.
 
C
ommerci
a
liz
a
tion
a
nd comp
a
nies
1
4
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M
ilit
a
r
y
 
a
pplic
a
tions
1
5
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C
ell-culture
BC
Is
1
6
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E
t
h
ic
a
l consider
a
tions
1
7
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C
ommerci
a
l mind m
a
c
h
ine
1
8
.
 
H
ow br
a
in computer interf 
a
ce works
1
9
.
 
C
ortic
a
l pl
a
sticit
y
 2
0.
 
M
ind control of extern
a
l devices2
1.
 
B
etter sensing s
y
stems22
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Th
e br
a
in g
a
te23
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C
onclusion24
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B
ibliogr
a
p
hy
 
 
 
ARUN KUMAR YADAV ROLL NO: 0600115008
Page | 2
Introductionbr
a
in computer interf 
a
ce
A brain±computer interface (BCI), sometimes called a direct neural interface or a brain± machine interface, is a direct communication pathway between a brain and an external device.BCIs were aimed at assisting, augmenting or repairing human cognitive or sensory-motor functions.Research on BCIs began in the 1970s at the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA)under a grant from the National Science Foundation followed by a contract from DARPA.
[1][2]
 These papers also mark the first appearance of the expression
brain±computer interface
in thescientific literature.The field has since blossomed spectacularly, mostly toward neuroprosthetics applications thataim at restoring damaged hearing, sight and movement. Thanks to the remarkable cortical plasticity of the brain, signals from implanted prostheses can, after adaptation, be handled bythe brain like natural sensor or effector channels.
[3]
Following years of animal experimentation,the first neuroprosthetic devices implanted in humans appeared in the mid-nineties. Neuroprosthetics is an area of neuroscience concerned with neural prostheses²using artificialdevices to replace the function of impaired nervous systems or sensory organs. The most widelyused neuroprosthetic device is the cochlear implant, which was implanted in approximately100,000 people worldwide as of 2006.
[4]
There are also several neuroprosthetic devices that aimto restore vision, including retinal implants.The differences between BCIs and neuroprosthetics are mostly in the ways the terms are used:neuroprosthetics typically connect the nervous system to a device, whereas BCIs usuallyconnect the brain (or nervous system) with a computer system. Practical neuroprosthetics can belinked to any part of the nervous system²for example, peripheral nerves²while the term"BCI" usually designates a narrower class of systems which interface with the central nervoussystem.The terms are sometimes used interchangeably, and for good reason. Neuroprosthetics and BCIsseek to achieve the same aims, such as restoring sight, hearing, movement, ability tocommunicate, and even cognitive function. Both use similar experimental methods and surgicaltechniques.
 
 
ARUN KUMAR YADAV ROLL NO: 0600115008
Page | 3
Ty
pes of 
B
r
a
in
C
omputer Interf 
a
ce
Inv
a
sive
B
r
a
in
C
omputer Interf 
a
ces
Invasive Brain Computer Interface Devices are those implanted directly into the brain and hasthe highest quality signals. These devices are used to provide functionality to paralyzed people.Invasive BCIs can also be used to restore vision by connecting the brain with external camerasand to restore the use of limbs by using brain controlled robotic arms and legs.The problem with this type of device though, is that scar tissue forms over the device as areaction to the foreign matter. This reduces its efficiency and increases the risk to the patient.
Pa
rti
a
ll
y
Inv
a
sive
B
r
a
in
C
omputer Interf 
a
ces
Partially Invasive BCIs, on the other hand, are implanted inside the skull but outside the brain.Although signal strength using this type of BCI device is a bit weaker, partially invasive BCIshas less risk of scar tissue formation.
Non Inv
a
sive
B
r
a
in
C
omputer Interf 
a
ces
 Non invasive brain computer interface, although it has the least signal clarity when it comes tocommunicating with the brain (skull distorts signal), is also the safest. This type of device has been found to be successful in giving a patient the ability to move muscle implants and restore partial movement. One of the most popular devices under this category is the EEG or electroencephalography capable of providing a fine temporal resolution. It is easy to use,relatively cheap and portable.
E
t
h
ics
a
nd
BC
Is
Of course, the use of BCIs has sparked some debate among people especially since one of itsfuture applications is the enhancement of human capabilities and mind control (brain pacemakers are now successful in treating depression). Nonetheless, this technology has not yetattained its full maturity and is therefore still relatively below the social radar. As of today, thistechnology is seen more to help much in fighting against disability through prosthetics and as atreatment for neurological ailments such as depression.
A
nim
a
l
BC
I rese
a
rc
h
 

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