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Simplification of Boolean Functions

# Simplification of Boolean Functions

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4. Simpliﬁcation of Boolean Functions4-1
Chapter 4. Simpliﬁcation of BooleanFunctions
Boolean Cubes and Boolean Functions
0 101111000
(a) n = 1(b) n = 2(c) n = 3(d) n = 4
110000000010001100010110011101011111101110011000111011100100000010011111101110001100
Figure 1: Boolean cubes [Gajski].c
Cheng-Wen Wu, Lab for Reliable Computing (LaRC), EE, NTHU
2005

4. Simpliﬁcation of Boolean Functions4-2
A Boolean
Ò
-cube uniquely represents a Boolean function of
Ò
variables if each vertex is assigned a 1 (marked) or 0 (unmarked).
Eachvertexof the
Ò
-cube represents aminterm(a row in the truth table).
Example 1
Fig. 2showsthetruthtableandthecorrespondingcuberepresentationsof thecarryand sum functions.
¾
(c) Sum function
s
i
(b) Carry function
c
i+1
(a) Truth table
c
i+1
s
ii
c
i
x
i
y
0 0 0 0 00 0 1 0 10 1 0 0 10 1 1 1 01 0 0 0 11 0 1 1 01 1 0 1 01 1 1 1 1
000010011111101110001000010011111101110001100100
Figure 2: Boolean-cube representations for carry and sum functions [Gajski].
(a) Each
Ñ
-subcube of the
Ò
-cube represents
¾
Ñ
minterms with the same
Ò

Ñ
literals, where
ÑÒ
; (b) each
Ñ
-subcube with
¾
Ñ
1-mintermsrepresents a product term of
Ò

Ñ
literals.
Aprime implicant(PI) is a subcube (of 1-minterms) that is not contained inany other subcube (of 1-minterms); anessential prime implicant(EPI) is a PIthat contains a 1-minterm that is not contained in any other PI.
c
Cheng-Wen Wu, Lab for Reliable Computing (LaRC), EE, NTHU
2005

4. Simpliﬁcation of Boolean Functions4-3
Map Representation
Complexity of digital circuit (gate count)
»
complexity of algebraic expres-sion (literal count).
A function’s truth-table representation is unique; its algebraic expression isnot. Simpliﬁcation by algebraic means is awkward (from algorithmic pointof view).
AKarnaughmap(K-map)isanarrayofsquareseachrepresentingoneminterm.Simpliﬁcation by the map method is straightforward.
(a) n = 1(b) n = 2(c) n = 3(d) n = 4x01
1
mm
0
m
3
m
2
01xy01
1
mm
0
m
3
m
2
m
4
m
5
m
m
0001111001xyz
1
mm
0
m
3
m
2
m
4
m
5
m
m
m
8
m
9
m
11
m
10
m
12
m
13
m
15
m
14
00011110xyzw00011110
Figure 3: Boolean cubes and corresponding Karnaugh maps [Gajski].
Each K-map deﬁnes a unique Boolean function.
A Boolean function can be represented by a truth table, a Boolean ex-pression, an
Ò
-cube, or a map.
c
Cheng-Wen Wu, Lab for Reliable Computing (LaRC), EE, NTHU
2005

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