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SineTableBhaskaracharyaII

SineTableBhaskaracharyaII

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Published by roypkin
Simulation of the Bhaskaracharya II Algorithms for the Constructio of the Sine Table is reported in this short note.
Simulation of the Bhaskaracharya II Algorithms for the Constructio of the Sine Table is reported in this short note.

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Published by: roypkin on May 15, 2008
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07/17/2009

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On the Sine Table of BhaskaracharyaII [1150AD]
 The genesis of Trigonometry , according to the historians of mathematics isin the Chord Table of Hipparchus [ca.190-120BC]. Hipparchus has intoduced BabylonianSexagsimal System in his Chord Table and it is now known that the famous BabyloniansPlimpton322 [ca 1900-1600BC] contains fifteen secants from 30deg to45deg.Ptolemy's[ca 85-165AD] Chord Tables included in 'Syntaxis Mathematica', betterknown as Almagest [Al-Magesti],are exclusively based on geomtric theorems. The Indian contribution , according to many historians is limited totabulating the Ardha Jya [i.e. the Half Chord Function] , taking the clue from theHellentistic world ; though the word Sine is now known to originate from the wordJya[Jiva].Though the age of the earliest known Hindu Text on astronomy andmathematics viz. Surya Siddhanta is not known exactly , we can convincingly argue thatit is not later than 700BC. There are many similarities betwwen the lost table of Hipparchus and the Babylonian Tables. Apart from the sexagesimal system of measuringthe angle , the Hindu Text and the Hipparchus Table had taken the defining circle with aradius equal to 3438 units. The Hindu Table uses Decimal System for the numbers andinteger arithmetic for the 24 half chord values starting from 3deg 45min. Thus it is an aidto mnemonic. Intermediate values , prescribes Surya Siddhanta may be calculated bylinear interpolation. Use of Finite Difference Algorithm at such an early stage of humancivilisation is really astonishing. Moreover in Surya Sidhanta we find the use of Versinfunction , which implicitly means Sin(90
˚
-
Ө
) = Cos
Ө
, unkown to both Hipparchus andPtolemy.The Indian quest for an accurate Sine Table culminated withBhaskaracharya II[1150AD] In his Siddhanta Siromani , Bhakaracharya II summarisesvarious canons for the construction of the Sine Table. But really intriguing are thePratibhagajyaka Rule , which is the mode of finding the Sine of every degree from thequadrant and the differential rule (Sin
Ө
)= Cos
Ө
 
Ө
, which he formulated in the contextof instantaneous velocity. Simultaion produces Sine Tables with an error in thesixth/seventh place of decimal compared to the actual value as per the g77 compilerconfigured on PIV 1.8 Ghz processor. We present both the simulated values.
 
Angle Simulated Actual Error 38 0.61565926 0.61566149 0.0000022339 0.62931707 0.62932041 0.0000033340 0.64278319 0.64278762 0.0000044341 0.65605352 0.65605904 0.0000055342 0.66912401 0.66913062 0.0000066243 0 .68199068 0.68199838 0.0000077044 0.69464962 0.69465839 0.0000087745 0.70710677 0.70710680 0.0000000346 0.71933857 0.71933982 0.0000012547 0.73135126 0.73135372 0.0000024648 0.74314118 0.74314484 0.00000366Table I : Sine Table simulated with Pratibhagajyaka RuleTable II: Sine Table Simulated with the Differential RuleAngle Simulated Actual Error24 0.40673674 0.40673665 0.0000000925 0.42261838 0.42261827 0.0000001126 0.43837128 0.43837116 0.0000001227 0.45399065 0.45399051 0.0000001428 0.46947173 0.46947157 0.0000001629 0.48480981 0.48480963 0.0000001830 0.50000021 0.50000001 0.0000002031 0.51503810 0.51503809 0.0000000132 0.52991931 0.52991928 0.0000000333 0.54463910 0.54463905 0.0000000534 0.55919299 0.55919292 0.0000000835 0.57357655 0.57357645 0.0000001036 0.58778539 0.58778527 0.00000012In addition to the differential identity (Sin
Ө
)= Cos
Ө
 
Ө
, Bhakaracharya II was definitelyaware that Sin
Ө
 / 
Ө
=1 , in the limit as
Ө
tends to zero.The rich heritage of Ancient Indian Mathematics and Astronomy is yet to be exploaredsystematically.

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