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TTC2-Gonzalez2009-En-En Glossary of Psychology Terms 020001

TTC2-Gonzalez2009-En-En Glossary of Psychology Terms 020001

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:
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p
S'f
chol-o~3'1
GLOSSARY
absolutethreshold-theweakestsmulusthatpro- ducesasensation.[51 accommodation-(
1)
reflexívecontractionoflensmus- clestofocuseyesonnearby
objects.
(2)themodifica- tionofexistingschemestoincorporatenewknowl-
edge
thatdoesnotfitthem.[5.151 acetylcholine(ACH)-neurotransmitterusedbythe motorneuronsofthe
spínal
cord.[3J achievement
motíve-s-the
capacíty
toderivesatisfaction byattainingsomestandardofexcellence.[l21 achievementtests-testsconstructedtoassesstheex- tentofanindívidual'sknowledgeaboutsubjects taughtinschool.[201 acquisition-(
1)
theprocessby
whích
anorganism learnsthe
assocíatíonínvolved
in
class
ícal
condítíon-
ing.(2)theprocessby
whích.
weinitially
perceíve,
regíster.
andrecordinformationinourmemory.[8. 9J.actfrequencyapproach-anapproachtopersonality thatclaimsthatwetendtoaddupallofa
persori's actíons
thatfítaparticular
category,
then
assígn
a
traít
tothepersononthat
basts.
[191activephase-thatstageinthecourseof
schízophrenía
inwhich
psychotíc
symptomspredominate.[221 adhoccategories-spur-of-the-moment
categoríes
con- structedtohan
dle
particularfunctions.[l01 adaptatíon-i-adjustrnentinsensorycapacity.[51·· adaptivebehavior-anybehaviorthatmakesananimal..
functíon
betterin
íts
envíronrnent.
[4
l'"..
adaptíve
radíatíon-c-evolutíonarypatternin.whicha" groupoforganisms
wíth
acommonancestor
díverst-
fyso.thattheycanmoveintoa'newerivironmental ruche..
[4L
additive.colormiring-thecombírungofcolored
Iíghts.
[51adjacencypairs-conversational
conventíon
in
whích
anutterancebyonepersontellstheotherwhichsort ofresponse
ís
appropriate;common
paírs
include questícn/response.surnrnons/answer,etc..[161 adverseimpact-resultswhentheproportionofno-
.r--..
tyapplicantshiredaftertakínganemploymenttestis lessthanfour-fthsoftheproportion
of
majoríty applicantshired.Insuchaninstance..thecourts conderthatthetesthasanadverseimpacton minorities.(281 affect-emotionalresponse.[221 affectívediSorder-disturbanceofmood.[22
I
afterímage-i-asensoryimpressionthatpersists.after removalofthestímus.[51 aggressfon-c-anyactthatísintendedtocausepaín. damage,orsufferingtoanother.[271 agnosia-an
ínabity
to
recogze
sounds.[3J algorithm-asimplesetof
rules
arrangedina
logícal
orderthat
wíll
solveallínstancesof
a
particularsetof problems.[101. altricial-helpless(referringtotheyoungofaspecies) [141altruism-prosocialbehavíorshowíngunselfishconcern sprtngtngfromacornbínattonofemotionaldistress
1
\.
¡
I
i
Thenumbersfollowingtheentriesrefertothechaptersofthe textin
which
eachtermorconceptísdiscussed
in
detall.
atanothersplightandanunderstandíngofheror hisneeds.[l71 Alzheimer'sdisease-adebilitatingbraindiseasechar- )lcterizedbyincreasinglyseriousmemorydisorder anddeteriorationof
attentíon,
judgrnerit,andper- sonalíty:mostcommonamongolderadults.[31 amnesia-partialor
total
lossofmemory.[3.
9.
221amplitude-intensityofa
soundwave,
usuallyex- pressedindecibels.[51 amygdala-astructureinthelimbicsystem.[31 analstage-thestageinpsychosexualdevelopmentdur- ing
whích
thechild'sattention
shífts
totheanusand thepleasuresofholdinginandpushingoutfeces. [17.181analogy-aparallelbetweentwosystemswhoseparts arerelatedinasimilarway.[l01 analyticpsychology-aschoolofpsychoanalysis
found-
edin1913byCarlJung.[181 anchoring-abias
ín
judgment.resultíngfromtheeffect ofthestartingpointfrorn
whích
the
dectsíon
was,made.[l01 androgeninsensitivitysyndrome-theconditionofa geneticallymalefetuswhosebodycellsfailtorespond toandrogen:thebaby
wíll
beborngeneticallymale but
wíththeexternal
anatomyofafemale.[13J androgens-malesexhormones.[131 androgynous-havinggenderrolesthatembracechar-" .actertstícsofbothsexes.[171 .anterogradeamnesia-aconditionin
whích
peopleare unabletolaydownnewmemories.[91 antisocialpersonality.[221Seesociopath. anvil-s-oneoftheossicles.[51 an.xiety-inFreudian
theory,
astateof
psychícpaín
thatalertstheegotodanger:itisakintofear.[18.221 anxietydisorder-a
coridítíon
inwhichsevereand
per-
sistentanxíety
ínterferes
withdailyfunctíoníng.[221 aphasia-aninabilitytospeakortounderstandspoken language.[31. apparentmovement-theperceptionof
motíon
whenarapídsuccesstonofmotionlessstimulimírnícthe changesthatoccurintruemovement.'[61 appliedscíence-i-theuseofbastescíencetoaccomplish practica!goa!s.[11 approach-avoidanceconilict-aconflíctoftwo.motrves, sothat
satísfyíng
onemotivefrustratesthe.other. [191 aptitudetests-tests
destgned
to
find
outaboutanínvidual'stalentorcapacityforparticularlinesof work.[201 archetypes-in.Jungsterms,ancíentideasorimages commontoallhuman
beíngs
inallerasandall
regíons
oftheworldandthatform
the
collective
unconscíous.
[l81arousal-aseriesof
phystologícal
changes,primarilyin theautonomicsystem.thattakeplacewhenanindi- vidualhasanemotion.[11
I
artificalintelligence(AI)-computerprogramrníngthat solvesproblemsbyfollowíngstepssimilartothosea humanoetngwouldtake.[lO]
.r
i
,
..
'['
',:,
727
 
728
assimilation-thetncorporatíonofnew
knowledge
through
theuseof
estíng
schemes.
[151
association-alearned
connectíon
betweentwoevents.
[SI
ataxia-aconditioncharacterízedbyseveretremors, drunken
movernents,
and
loss
ofbalance;duetodamagetothecerebellum.
[31
attachment-anemotionalbondsuchasonewhichts formedbetween
the
infantandherorhis
prímary
care
gíver.
[171.
»:
attitude-anattractionor
averstontoward
an
object.
in
whích
cognitive,
affectíve,
motivational,and
behav- íoral
processesareimplicated.
[251
attributiontheories-theoriesthatproposetoexplaín howpeople
attríbute
personality
traíts
orintentions toothersto
explaíntheírbehavíor.
[261
audienceinhibition-supressionduetoconcernabout others'eva1uationofourbehavior.
(271
auditorycortex-theareainthetemporallobeofthe
braín
thatp¡;ocessesauditoryinformation.
(31
auditorystreamsegregation-theauditoryeffectoftwo simultaneouslínesofmelody,eachthastínctíve quality.
[61
authenticity-livingbypersonalvalues.
(231
autisticfantasy-astateonthecontinuumthat
stretch-
esfromnormalwakingconsciousnessto
dreamíng:
itlacksany
orientatíontoward
reality.
[71
autogeníctrainíng=-arelaxationprocedurethatde- pendsonself-suggestionandimagery.
[211
autokineticmovement-anillusionofmovernent causedbyrandomeyemovements,
whíchmake
astationaryspot
appear
to
.move
inthedark.
[61
.autonomic-ilervoussyslerii::"':'thedivislonofthe
PNS
thatregulatestheinternalenvironmentandis
gener-
allyinvoluntary.
[31."
availability-aheuristicinwhich
predíctíons
arebasedonacomparisonofthecurrentsttuatíonwíth
past
examplesthatreadilycometo
rnínd.(lOI.
aversiontherapy-s-therapyinwhichthe
cent's-
éxpo-suretostírnulíthat
elícit
maladaptíveresponses
ís
accompaniedby
aversíve
stírnu.
[241
aversiveleanting-Iearningthatreliesonsuchtech-
niques
aspuníshrnent.escape-and-theavoídance
of
puníshment.
[SI
avoidanceleanting-conditioninglnwhichanorgan- ísrnpreventsthearrivalofanunpleasantsmulusby.: itsresponsetoawarningstimulus.
[81
axon-alongfiberofaneuronthatleadsawayfromthe cel!body.
[31
I
I
basalganglia-agroupofbraínstructuresthatseemto controlmovementandcoordínatethemotorcortex andthalamus..
[31
basicanx:iety-inHorney'sterrns,anxietyasíngoutof achíld'ssenseofhelplessnessandísolatíon,
(lSI
basichostdlíty-c-tnHorney'sterms,hostilityartsíng .fromresentmentoverparental
índífference,
inconsis- tency,andinterference.
(1SI
basiclevel-thatleve1inahierarchythatseemsthe mosteconomicalforcogmtíveznanípulatíon:thelevel thatprovídesthemostinformation.[10J basicneeds-fundamentalphystologícalneedsandin- termedíatepsychologtcalneeds(suchassafetyand
self-esteem).
[121
GLOSSARY
basicscience-fundamentalprínctplesthatexplaina broadrangeoffacts.
[1
J
basilarmembrane-amembranesupportingtheorgan ofCorti.Movementsofthismembranestimulatehr cells,whichinturn
trtgger
electrical
actívíty
intheauditorynerve.
[51
behavior-anyt:hingapersondoesorexperiences,
in-
cludingthoughts,feelings,anddreams.(1 behaviorgenetics-thestudyofinheritedpatterns
ofbehavíor.[4J
behavior
rehearsal-aproceduremílartopartiCipant modeling,butappliedtosocial
behavíor.
[24J
behavioralmedicine.
(11
Seehealthpsychology. behaviorism-theapproachtopsychologythatlimitsits studytoobservable,measurab1eresponsesto
specc
stímulí.
iu
beliefs-knowledgestructuresaboutobjectsand
events,
.[25J
binoculardisparity-differenceintheretinalimagere- ceivedbyeacheye;sourceof
ínformatton
fordepth
perceptíon.
[6Jbiofeedback-the
províston
ofacontinuousflowof
in-formatíon
regardingsome
phystologícal
functionby
electrcnícdevíces:
apersoncanthenlearnto
attaín
voluntarycontroloverthe
monítored
function.
[7,
21
J
biogenictheory-the
víew
thatmentaldisorderhasa physical,ororganíc,cause.[23J bipolardisorder-s-adisordercharacterizedbyextreme moods,begtnníngwitha
maníc
episodeofeuphoria, excitement,anda<¡:tivity,followedbyadepressive
epísode.
[22J.birthorder-thechíld'srankinthesequenceofbirths.
[261.-.....
blocking-a
relíable
phenomenonthatoccursinal!
spees
and.inmostconditionings
ítuatíons,
inwhichtheconditioningnormallycausedbyCS-UCS
paírtngs
canbeblockedentirely.
[SI
..brainstem-a
part
.ofthecentralcoreof
the
braín.
[31
branchíng-c-evoluttonarypattemin
whích
one
evolu-
tionarylinesplitsofffromanother.
[41
Broca'saphasia-severedísturbanceofspeech
produc- tíon.
broughtaboutbydamagetotherearof
the
leftfrontalcortex.
[31
cardinaltrait-asingle
traít
thatdirectsa
rnajor
portion of
a
personsbehavior.[19J casestudy-amethodofcollectingdatainwhichre- searchersconductanmtensíveínvestigatíonofone orafewíndívíduals.usuallywithreferencetoasingle psychologícalphenomenon.[2J catecholaminehypothesis-thehypothesisthatdepres- ston,resultsfromlowlevelsofnoreptnephríne(a catecholamine)andmaníaresultsfromhíghlevelsof norepinephrineinthebraín.
[23J
categorícalperceptíon-c-the-inbomtendencytohear speechsouridsindístínctcategoríes.(16J celibacy-compieteabstinencefromsexualactívíty.
[131
cellbody-thepartofaneuroncontainingthenucleus. (3Jcenters=-clumpsofneuronsinthecentralnervoussys- temthatfunctionasuníts:alsocalled
nuclei.
[31
centraicore-theareaofthebrainthatcarriesout functíonsnecessaryforsurval.
[31
centralnervoussystem(CNS)-the
rnajor
controlcenter
,
,
¡
I
)j
 
I1
I;
,I
,
.
~I
1
!
,!
I
I
¡;
¡
I
1I
I
1
!
I
¡
A
GLOSSARY
-¡
,
I
I
;
of
behavíor.It
consistsofthe
braín
andthespinal cord.[31 centraltraits-charaeteristicwaysofdealing
wíth
theworldthatcanbecapturedbyatraítname(honest, loving.
gregartousj
andthat
have
markedeffectson thewayother.relatedtraítsareperceived.(19,26] cerebellum-theareaofthebraínthatcoordinatesvol- untarymovernentand
maíntns
physicalbalance. [31cerebralcortex-thegraymatterthatcoversthecerebral herníspheres.[31 cerebralhemispheres-themostprominentlayerofthe braín:involvedininformationprocessing.[31 cerebrum-portionofthebrainthatallowsustoplan, learn,andreason:includesthecerebralcortexand thetissuebeneathit.[31 chunks-c1ustersofinformationthatformfamiliarse- quencesorpatternsofelements;usedtoencode materialinshort-termmemory.[91 clangassociation-inschizophrenia.thethrowingto- getherofconcepts,ideas,andsymbolsmerelybe- causetheyrhyme.[221 classicalconditioning-aprocesswherebyaneutral stírnulus.whenrepeatedlypresentedwíthanother stimulusthatnormal!yevokesareflexíveresponse, comestoelícitthatresponsewhenpresentedby itself.[81 client-centeredtherapy-ahumanistictherapyin whíchtheclientlearnstorntegrateselfandorgan- ísrn.toacceptal!experieneesasgenuíne.andto establishanunconditionalpositiveregard.[241 clínicalpsychologist-amental-healthprofessio'nal. whohasearnedadoctórate'(PhD"or-PsyD)incítnfcaf'" psychologyandhascompletedaone-yearclínícal. internship.[241" cnícalpsychology-theapproachtopsychologycon- cernedwiththestudy,diagnosis,andtreatmentof abnormalbehavíor..[1]. ,closedgenetic'programs-s-ínnategeneticprogramefor behaor:the
animal
ísbornwíththemandtheycan bechangedonlyslíghtlybyexperience.[4] cochIea-theportionoftheinnerearcontaíntngrecep- torsforconvertíngacoustieenergyintosound.[51 cognition-theprocessofknowíng.thehíghermental proeessesthathumanbeíngsengagein,including problemsolving.·knowing,··thinking,decisionmak- íng,reasoning;judng,ímagíníng.[la1 cognitivebalancetheory-s-thetheoryproposíngthat ínformatíonaboutpeople'sinconsistentrelaon- shipswitheachotherleadstoaconflíctthatthe índívídualseekstoresolve.[121 cognitivecnntrol-c-theguidaneeand
maintenance
ofbehaviorthroughself-reínforcernent..[191 cognitivedissonancetheory-thetheoryproposmg thatcontradietorythoughtscausea.stateofpsycho- logícaldistressknownasdissonanee;theindiVidual thenattemptstoreestablishinternalharmony.[121