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electrical currnt and current circuits for iit

# electrical currnt and current circuits for iit

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Chapter 6
Current and Direct Current Circuits

+ + A I

+ + +

6. 1 Charges in motion through an area A. The time rate at which charge ﬂows through the area is deﬁned as the current I. The direction of the current is the direction in which positive charges ﬂow when free to do so.
FIGURE

∆x vd q A

vd ∆t

FIGURE 6.2 A section of a uniform
conductor of cross-sectional area A. The mobile charge carriers move with an average speed vd along the wire, and the displacement they experience in this dir
Chapter 6
Current and Direct Current Circuits

+ + A I

+ + +

6. 1 Charges in motion through an area A. The time rate at which charge ﬂows through the area is deﬁned as the current I. The direction of the current is the direction in which positive charges ﬂow when free to do so.
FIGURE

∆x vd q A

vd ∆t

FIGURE 6.2 A section of a uniform
conductor of cross-sectional area A. The mobile charge carriers move with an average speed vd along the wire, and the displacement they experience in this dir

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10/31/2012

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Current and DirectCurrent Circuits
I
+++++
FIGURE
6.1
Charges in motionthrough an area
. The time rate at  which charge ﬂows through the areais deﬁned as the current
I
. The direc-tion of the current is the direction in which positive charges ﬂow when freeto do so.
Chapter 6

v

F
IGURE
6.2
A section of a uniformconductor of cross-sectional area
.The mobile charge carriers move withan average speed
along the wire,and the displacement they experiencein this direction in a time interval
is
x
. If we choose
to be thetime interval during which the chargesare displaced, on the average, by thelength of the cylinder, the number of carriers in the section of length
is
nA
, where
is the number of carriers per unit volume.

v
E
Figure 6.3
A schematic representation of thezigzag motion of a charge carrier in aconductor. The changes in directionare due to collisions with atoms in theconductor. Note that the net motionof electrons is opposite the directionof the electric ﬁeld. Because of theacceleration of the charge carriersdue to the electric force, the paths areactually parabolic. The drift speed,however, is much smaller than theaverage speed, so the parabolic shapeis not visible on this scale.