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02/09/2014

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Path
S
1
S
2
F
IGURE
9.1
Two surfaces S
1
and S
2
near the plate oacapacitor are bounded by thesame path
. The conductioncurrent in the wire passes onlthrough S
1
, which leads to acontradiction in Ampère’s lawthat is resolved only if onepostulates a displacement current throughS
2
.
E
S
2
S
1
F
IGURE
9.2
Because it exists only in the wires attached to the capacitor plates, theconduction current
I dq
/
dt
passes throughthe curved surface S
1
but not the ﬂat surfaceS
2
. Only the displacement curren
0
/
dt
passes through S
2
. The twocurrents mustbe equal for continuity.
Electromagnetic WavesChapter 9

y
EEcc
BB
y
(a) (b)
Figure 9.3
(a) The ﬁelds in an electroma gnetic wave traveling at  velocity in the positive x direction at one point on the xaxis. These ﬁelds depend only on x and t. (b) Representation of a sinusoidal electroma gnetic wave moving in thepositive x direction with a speed c.
c
:

BEB
+
B
dx  y
F
IGURE
9.5
As a plane wavemoving in the
direction passesthrough a rectangular path of width
dx
lying in the
xz
plane, themagnetic ﬁeld in the
direction varies from to . Thisconstruction allows us to evaluatethe line integral of over theperimeter of the rectangle.
B
:
B
:

B
:
B
:
E
+
EE

y
B
F
IGURE
9.4
As a plane wavemoving in the
direction passesthrough a rectangular path of width
dx
lying in the
x
plane, the electric ﬁeldin the
y
direction varies from to. This construction allows us toevaluate the line integral of over theperimeter of the rectangle.
E
:
E
:

E
:
E
: