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Heat Requirement Calculations

Heat Requirement Calculations

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05/23/2011

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Heat Requirement Calculations

There are two basic heat energy requirements to be considered in the sizing of heaters for a particularapplication.
1.
Start-Up Heat
is the heat energy required to bring a process up to operating temperature. Start-up heatrequirement calculations which include a materialchange of state should be calculated in three parts:1) Heat requirement from ambient temperature tochange of state temperature2) Heat requirement during change of state (latent heat)3) Heat requirement from change of state temperature tooperating temperature2.
Operating Heat
is the heat energy required to maintainthe desired operating temperature through normal work cycles. The larger of these two heat energy values will bethe wattage required for the application.A safety factor is usually added to allow for unknown or unexpected operating conditions. The safety factor isdependent on the accuracy of the wattage calculation. Afigure of 10% is adequate for small systems closelycalculated, while 20% additional wattage is morecommon, and figures of 25% to 35% should be consideredfor larger systems with many unknown conditionsexisting.
Start-Up Heat
requirements will include one or more of the following seven (7) calculations, depending on theapplication.
1. Wattage required to heat material:
Weight of material (lbs) x Specific Heat (Btu/lb °F) x Temperature rise (°F) 3.412 btu/watt hr. x Heat-up time (hr.)= Watts
2. Wattage required to heat container or tank:
Weight of container (lbs) x Specific Heat (Btu/lb °F) x Temperature rise (°F)3.412 btu/watt hr. x Heat-up time (hr.)= Watts
3. Wattage required to heat hardware in container
:Weight of hardware (lbs) x Specific Heat (Btu/lb °F) x Temperature rise (°F)3.412 btu/watt hr. x Heat-up time (hr.)= Watts
4. Wattage required to melt a solid to a liquid at constant temperature:
Heat of fusion (Btu/lb) x Weight of material to be melted (lb/hr)3.412 btu/watt hr.= Watts
Heat of Fusion (Latent Heat):
The amount of heat required to change one pound of a given substance from solid to liquid state without change intemperature is termed the heat of fusion.It requires 144 Btu to change one pound of ice at 32°F to one pound of water at32°F, the heat of fusion of ice being 144 Btu per pound.A change of state is usually accompanied by a change of specific heat. Thespecific heat of ice is 0.5; while that of water is 1.0.
5. Wattage required to change a liquid to a vapor state at constanttemperature.
Heat of vaporization (Btu/lb) x Weight of material to be vaporized (lb/hr)3.412 btu/watt hr.= Watts
Heat of Vaporization (Latent Heat):
The amount of heat required to changeone ound of a iven substance from liuid to vaor state without chane in

temperature is termed the heat of vaporization.It requires 965 Btu to change one pound of water at 212°F to one pound of steamat212°F.
6. Wattage to counteract liquid surface losses:
Total liquid surface area (sq. ft.) x Loss rate at final temperature (watts/sq. ft.)2= Watts
7. Wattage to counteract surface losses from container walls, platen surfaces,etc.
Total surface area (sq. ft.) x Loss rate at final temperature (watts/sq. ft.)2= Watts
Operating heat
requirements will include one or more of the following four (4)calculations.Any additional losses particular to the application should also be estimated andincluded.1
. Wattage to counteract losses from open liquid surfaces.
Total liquid surface area (sq. ft.) x Loss rate at operating temperature (watts/sq.ft.)= Watts
2. Wattage to counteract container or platen surface losses
.Total surface area (sq. ft.) x Loss rate at operating temperature (watts/sq. ft.) = Watts
3. Wattage required to heat material transferred in and out of the system.
(Metal dipped in heated tanks, air flows, make-up liquids, etc.)Weight of material to be heated (lbs) x Specific Heat (Btu/lb °F) x Temperaturerise (°F)3.412 btu/watt hr. x Heat-up time (hr.)= Watts
4. Heat-up of racks of containers, etc. transferred in and out of the system:
Weight of items to be heated (lbs) x Specific Heat (Btu/lb °F) x Temperature rise(°F)3.412 btu/watt hr. x Heat-up time (hr.)= Watts
Specific Heat:
The heat necessary to increase the temperature of all other substances has been referred to water as a standard. The ratio of the amount of heat required to increase the temperature of one pound of any substance by onedegree to the amount necessary to increase one pound of water is known as thespecific heat of that substance.

The
heat transfer coefficient
, inthermodynamicsand inmechanicalandchemical engineering, is used in calculating theheat transfer , typically byconvectionor  phase changebetween a fluid and a solid:
h= delta Q/ A* dalta T* delta t
where
∆
Q
= heat input or heat lost, J
h
= heat transfer coefficient, W/(m
2
K)
A
= heat transfer surface area, m
2

= difference in temperature between the solid surface and surrounding fluid area, K
= time period, sFrom the above equation, the heat transfer coefficient is the proportionalitycoefficient between the heatflux,
Q
/(
A
∆
), and the thermodynamic driving force for the flow of heat (i.e., the temperature difference,
∆
).The heat transfer coefficient hasSIunits in watts per meter squared-kelvin [W/(m
2
K)].Heat transfer coefficient is the inverse of thermal insulance.There are numerous methods for calculating the heat transfer coefficient in different heat transfer modes,different fluids, flow regimes, and under differentthermohydraulicconditions. Often it can be estimated by dividing thethermal conductivityof theconvectionfluid by a length scale. The heat transfer  coefficient is often calculated from the Nusselt number (adimensionless number

).
The Heat Exchanger Equation
The basic heat exchanger equation is Q = U A
∆
T
lm
, whereQ is the rate of heat transfer between the two fluids in the heat exchanger in But/hr,U is the overall heat transfer coefficient in BTU/hr-ft
2
-
o
F,A is the heat transfer surface area in ft
2
,and
∆
T
lm
is the log mean temperature difference in
o
F, calculated from the inlet and outlettemperatures of both fluids.
For heat exchanger design, the basic heat exchanger equation can be used to calculate the required heatexchanger area for known or estimated values of the other three parameters, Q, U, and
T
lm
. Each of those parameters will now be discussed briefly.