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022 Operating System Concepts and Networking Management
Course Code
Course Title
Operating System Concepts and Networking
Assignment Number
Question 1:
(a) What is an IP address? How is it configured? Write all the steps.
(b) List and explain the various features of Bridges with the help of a dia
Answer (a)
IP address structure and classification
A typical IPv4 address Address Classes 
In the original Internet routing scheme developed inthe 1970s, sites were assigned addresses from one of 
: Class A, Class B and Class C. The address classes
differ in size and number. Class A
addresses are the largest, but there are few of them. Class Cs are the smallest, but they are numerous.
Classes D and E are also defined, but
not used in normal operation.
To say that class
based IP addressing in still used would be true only in the loosest sense.
Many addressingdesigns are still class
based, but an increasing number can only be
explained using the more general
concept of CIDR, which is backwards compatible with
address classes.
e it to say that at one point in time, you could request the Internet NIC to assign
you a class A, B or Caddress. To get the larger class B addresses, you might have to
supply some justification, but only the classA was really tough to get. In any case,
would set the network bits, or n
bits, to some unique value andinform the local network 
engineer. It would then be up to the engineer to assign each of his hosts an IP
starting with the assigned n
bits, followed by host bits, or h
bits, to make the address
Internet routing used to work like this: A router receiving an IP packet extracted its
Destination Address,
which was classified (literally) by examining its first one to four
bits. Once the address's class had beendetermined, it was broken down into network and
host bits. Routers ignored the host bits, and only neededto match the network bits to find
a route to the network. Once a packet reached its target network, its host
field was
examined for final delivery.
Summary of IP Address ClassesClass A
0nnnnnnn hhhhhhhh hhhhhhhh hhhhhhhh
· First bit 0; 7 network bits; 24 host bits
· Initial byte: 0
- 127
· 126 Class As exist (0 and 127 are reserved)
· 16,777,214 hosts on each Class A
Class B
10nnnnnn nnnnnnnn hhhhhhhh hhhhhhhh
First two bits 10; 14 network bits; 16 host bits
· Initial byte: 128
· 16,384 Class Bs exist
· 65,532 hosts on each Class B
Class C
110nnnnn nnnnnnnn nnnnnnnn hhhhhhhh
· First three bits 110; 21 network bits; 8 host bits
· Initial byte: 192
· 2,097,152 Class Cs exist
· 254 hosts on each Class C
Class D
1110mmmm mmmmmmmm mmmmmmmm mmmmmmmm
· First four bits 1110; 28 multicast address bits
· Initial byte: 224
· Class Ds are multicast addresses
Class E
1111rrrr rrrrrrrr rrrrrrrr rr
· First four bits 1111; 28 reserved address bits
· Initial byte: 248
· Reserved for experimental use
b) Answer:
DNS server
is any computer registered to join the Domain Name System.
A DNS serverruns special
purpose networking software, features a public IP address,
and contains a database of network names and addresses for other Internet hosts.
DNS Root Servers
DNS servers communicate with each other using private network protocols. All DNS
servers are organizedin a hierarchy. At the top level of the hierarchy, so
store the complete database of Internet domain names and their corresponding IP
addresses. The Internet employs 13 root servers thathave become somewhat famous for
their special role. Maintained by various independent agencies, theservers are aptly
named A, B, C and so on up to M. Ten of these servers reside in the United States, one in
Japan, one in London, UK and one in Stockholm, Sweden.
DNS resolution
Resolution occurs when a client queries a name serverto obtain the IP address with
which it wants to
connect. If a name server in the local domain cannot resolve a client's
request, it queries other servers tolocate a server that can.
There are two types of resolution:
· by iteration
· by recursion
ve queries
By default, a name server queries ``iteratively'' (or non
recursively). This means that it
queries several
name servers in turn until it finds an answer. It starts by consulting a
known name server within the domainhierarchy that contains the destination machine. If 
it does not already know of a suitable server to ask, itfirst asks a server in the root
domain. Each server responds by referring to a name server in the domain
hierarchy that is closer to the one containing the destination mac
hine. The local server
then repeats its
query to the name server whose name and IP address it has just been
given. In this way, the local servertraverses the domain name space until it reaches a
name server for the domain that contains the destination
hine. This name server
should be able to provide the IP address of the destination machine. ``Obtaining an IP
address by iterativequery'' illustrates how a client in the domain
obtain the IP address of the remote host
Obtaining an IP address by iterative query
The steps taken to resolve
to its IP address are:
1. The local client asks the local name server for the IP address of 
2. The local name server does not know the IP address of 
 Missouri .rivers
It also does not know the IP address of the name servers for
so it asks a root name server for the IP address of 
3. The root name server does not know the IP address of 
 Missouri .rivers
but itdoes know the IP address of the name server for
mynet .com
it tells this to the local nameserver.
4. The local name server asks
's name server for the IP address of 
name server does not know the IP address of 
, but
it does know the IP address of the name server for
so it tells this to the localme serv
6. The local name server asks
name server for the IP address of 
name server is authoritative for its zone so it can supply the IP
address of 

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