Ans: 1 (ii)
Database management system (DBMS)thatstores datain the form of relatedtables.
Relational databases are powerful because they require few assumptions about howdata is related or how it will be extracted from the database. As a result, the samedatabase can be viewed in many different ways.
File Base System
:-=>Analogue of manual file system=> Direct replacement for manual files=>Weak handling of cross-references=? May be text-based, or binary format
Files example: estate agentFile: Properties for rentData: property id. number, address, area, city,postcode, type of property, rooms, rent permonth, ownerFile: Property ownersData: owner id. number, first name, last name,address, phone numberFile: Potential rentersData: renter id. number, first name, last name,address, phone, type wanted, maximum rent
Applications and files
Each file is created by an application programe.g. a
interface, to input each data itemEach may be used by a different person or departmente.g. Properties for rent, owners, and renters entries by sales department; lease,property for rent, and renter by contracts department
Separation of dataInformation needed for a particular taskmay be in different files – or even different departments’ files Duplication of dataInformation is stored redundantly Wastes space, processing overheadData may lose
; different versions become inconsistence.
(iii Describe ANSI SPARC 3-level architecture of DBMS with details of languages associated atdifferent levels plus the level of data independence.