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MCS-023

MCS-023

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Course Code : MCS-023Course Title : Introduction to Database Management SystemsThis assignment has four questions. Answer all questions of total 80 marks. Rest 20marks are for viva voce. You may use illustrations and diagrams to enhanceexplanations. Please go through the guidelines regarding assignments given in theProgramme Guide for the format of presentation. Answer to each part of thequestion should be confined to about 300 words.
Question 1
: 20 Marks(i) What is DBMS? How is it different from RDBMS?
Ans 1 (i)
DBMS
Short for
elational 
atabase
m
anagement 
 s
ystem
and pronounced as separateletters, a type of database management system (DBMS) that stores data in the formof related tables. Relational databases are powerful because they require fewassumptions about how data is related or how it will be extracted from the database.As a result, the same database can be viewed in many different ways.An important feature of relational systems is that a single database can be spreadacross several tables. This differs from flat-file databases, in which each database isself-contained in a single table.Almost all full-scale database systems are RDBMS's. Small database systems,however, use other designs that provide less flexibility in posing queries.
RDMBS
 Relational Database Management System. A type of DBMS in which the database isorganized and accessed according to the relationships between data values. TheRDBMS was invented by a team lead by Dr. Edmund F. Codd and funded by IBM inthe early 1970's. The Relational Model is based on the principles of relationalalgebra. Example RDBMS Systems: Oracle, SQL Server, DB2, Sybase, etc
(ii)
 
Is DBMS usage always advisable or some times we may depend on file basesystems? Comment on the statement by describing the situation where DBMS is not abetter option & file base systems is better.
 
 2
Ans: 1 (ii)
Database management system (DBMS)thatstores datain the form of relatedtables. Relational databases are powerful because they require few assumptions about howdata is related or how it will be extracted from the database. As a result, the samedatabase can be viewed in many different ways.
File Base System
:-=>Analogue of manual file system=> Direct replacement for manual files=>Weak handling of cross-references=? May be text-based, or binary format
 
Files example: estate agentFile: Properties for rentData: property id. number, address, area, city,postcode, type of property, rooms, rent permonth, ownerFile: Property ownersData: owner id. number, first name, last name,address, phone numberFile: Potential rentersData: renter id. number, first name, last name,address, phone, type wanted, maximum rent
Applications and files
Each file is created by an application programe.g. a
form
interface, to input each data itemEach may be used by a different person or departmente.g. Properties for rent, owners, and renters entries by sales department; lease,property for rent, and renter by contracts department
File-based disadvantages
Separation of dataInformation needed for a particular taskmay be in different files – or even different departments’ files Duplication of dataInformation is stored redundantly Wastes space, processing overheadData may lose
integrity
; different versions become inconsistence.
(iii Describe ANSI SPARC 3-level architecture of DBMS with details of languages associated atdifferent levels plus the level of data independence.
Ans 1(iii)
 
 3
ANSI SPARC is an acronym for the American National Standard Institute StandardPlanning and Requirements Committee. A standard three level approach to databasedesign has been agreed.- External level- Conceptual level- Internal level (includes physical data storage)The 3 Level Architecture has the aim of enabling users to access the same data butwith a personalised view of it. The distancing of the internal level from the externallevel means that users do not need to know how the data is physically stored in thedatabase. This level separation also allows the Database Administrator (DBA) tochange the database storage structures without affecting the users' views.
External Level (User Views)
 A user's view of the database describes a part of the database that is relevant to aparticular user. It excludes irrelevant data as well as data which the user is not authorisedto access.
Conceptual Level
 The conceptual level is a way of describing what data is stored within the whole databaseand how the data is inter-related. The conceptual level does not specify how the data isphysically stored.
Internal Level
 The internal level involves how the database is physically represented on the computersystem. It describes how the data is actually stored in the database and on the computerhardware.

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