Analytical Chemistry Laboratory 2
Electrogravimetric Determination of Copper
Department of Chemical Engineering and Chemistry, Mapua Institute of Technology
Electrogravimetric analysis is an easy and accurate method for determining metalconcentrations using electrochemistry. The element copper that was determined was deposited asa solid on a pre-weighed electrode throughout the reduction process, and was measured by theweight gained by the electrode. The experiment was performed in two trials using sample # 2.The average percentage of copper in the solution was 17.72%.
The main purpose of thisexperiment is to determine the percentage of copper in the solution by electrogravimetricanalysis.
In electrogravimetry, a metal ion isquantitatively (>99.9%) electroplated onto a preweighed “working” electrode almostalways as the solid metal. This takes place atthe negative electrode or cathode, which isdefined as that electrode at which reductiontakes place. From the gain in mass of theelectrode, the amount of metal in the samplecan be calculated – assuming no interferantsare also electroplated onto the electrode. Afew metal ions can be deposited in somechemical form onto the anode, the electrodeat which oxidation takes place.The unknown sample containingcopper was prepared by weighing (to thenearest 0.1 mg) 1-g samples into a 250-mL beaker. 25 mL of water was added, followed by 4 mL H
and 1 mL HNO
. It was thenheated below boiling until solution iscomplete. After the solution was heated, itwas then cooled and diluted to 100 mL. This procedure was repeated again for the secondtrial.Copper (Cu) is a heavy metal whoseunbound ions are toxic. Copper salts areirritants to the skin, eyes, and mucousmembranes. Ingestion of copper salts maycause vomiting, diarrhoea, hemorragicgastritis, and excessive salivation. Toxicityis primarily due to accidental and suicidalattempts, and results in intravascular hemolysis, methemogloninemia, renalfailure and often death. Vineyard sprayersusing a solution containing aqueous copper sulphate developed granulomatous andfibrotic lung lesions. Inhalation of copper dust and fume results in irritation of therespiratory tract, ulceration and perforationof nasal septum, metallic or sweet taste, andin some instances, discoloration of the skinand hair. The inhalation of metal fumes produced at high temperature, such aswelding, may cause "metal fume fever", aninfluenza-like (benign) illness. High copper content in drinking water and food maycontribute to the development of severe liver damage in infants.As with all of the other industrialactivities, copper production is highlysubject to environmental regulation related