Major Career Development Theories:
Again these include but are not limitedto:
Every person has a unique pattern of traits made up of their interests, values, abilities and personality characteristics, these traits cTrait-Factor Theory: The Trait-Factor theory of career developmentgoes as far back as the early 1900’s and is associated mostly stronglywith vocational theorists Frank Parsons and E.G. Williamson. Some of the basic assumptions that underlie this theory are:
objectively identified and profiled to represent anindividual’s potential
Every occupation is made up of factors requiredfor the successful performance of that occupation.These factors can be objectively identified andrepresented as an occupational profile
It is possible to identify a fit or match betweenindividual traits and job factors using a straight forwardproblem-solving/decision making process.
The closer the match between personal traits and job factors the greater the likelihood for successful jobperformance and satisfaction.
Trait-factor theory has been around for a long time and is still beingused by many career practitioners in one form or another. Many of theaptitude, personality and interest tests and occupational informationmaterials that emerged from this approach have evolved and remain inuse today
(e.g.,True Colors, General Aptitude Test Battery, Data- People-Things Interest Test
, occupational profiles and the ever expanding computer-based career guidance programs).
Holland’s Career Typology Theory
: An off-shoot of the trait-factor theory can be seen in the work of John Holland. Like the trait-factor approach, Holland’s Career Typology focuses on individualcharacteristics and occupational task. Holland’s theory expanded theconcept of personality types and posited that:
Personalities fall into six broad categories:realistic, investigative, artistic, social, enterprising andconventional (often referred to as RIASEC).
Since certain personalities are attracted to certain jobs, the work environments then reflect this personalityand can be clustered into six similar populations(RIASEC)
Although each individual is made up of all sixtypes, one type is usually dominant. Most personalities