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Preface

This book is the fruit of many years of teaching complex variablesto students in applied mathematics by the ﬁrst author and research bythe third author with the close collaboration of the second author, whotranslated a preliminary Russian versionof the text and collected and solvedall the exercises. It is an extended course in complex analysis and itsapplications, written in a style that is particulary well-suited for studentsin applied mathematics, science and engineering, and for users of complexanalysis in the applications.The ﬁrst half of the book is a clear and rigorous introduction to thetheory of functions of one complex variable. The second half contains theevaluation of many new integration formulae and the summation of newinﬁnite series by the calculus of residue. The last chapter is concerned withthe Fatou–Julia theory for meromorphic functions for ﬁnding selective rootsof some transcendental equations as found in the applications.Chapter 1 reviews the representation of complex numbers and intro-duces analytic (holomorphic) functions. In Chapter 2, both traditional andnon-traditional problems in conformal mapping are solved in great detail.Chapter 2 depends only on Chapter 1 and is independent of the otherchapters; thus it can be taken any time, after the study of the ﬁrst chapter.Chapters 3, 4, 5, 6 and 9 can be covered in that order.Chapters 7, 8, 10 and 11 cover more specialized topics and are beyonda usual introduction to analytic functions.The short bibliography lists common references in English and in Rus-sian and a few research papers.The exercises are elementary and aim at the understanding of the the-ory of analytic functions. Some of them can be easily solved with symbolicsoftware on computers. Answers to almost all odd-numbered exercises arefound at the end of the book.The text beneﬁtted from the remarks made by generations of studentsat the Riga Technical University and at the University of Ottawa. MissEllen Yanqing Zheng has read a preliminary version of the book in thewinter of 1994 and made many corrections.

vii

viii PREFACE

The authors express their thanks to Dr. Thierry Giordano, who hasused the manuscript as lecture notes since 1995. He has made many valu-able suggestions for improving the ﬁrst part of the book.Mr. Andr´e Montpetit of the Centre de recherches math´ematiques of theUniversit´e de Montr´eal has been generous in oﬀering invaluable assistancefor the composition of the text in

A

M

S

−

LaTeX

.This book beneﬁtted from the supports of the Natural Sciences andEngineering Council of Canada, the University of Ottawa, Riga TechnicalUniversity, and the Centre de recherches math´ematiques of the Universit´ede Montr´eal.The authors express their warmest thanks to the dynamic and collab-orative editorial and production team of Academic Press Inc.M. Ya. AntimirovA. A. KolyshkinR´emi VaillancourtRiga, Ottawa, 24 November 1997

CHAPTER 1

Functions of a Complex Variable

1.1. Complex numbers1.1.1. Algebraic operations on complex numbers.

Definition

1.1.1

.

A

complex number

z

is an ordered pair, (

x,y

), of real numbers,

x

and

y

, where

x

is called the

real part

of

z

, written

x

=

z

,and

y

is called the

imaginary part

of

z

, written

y

=

z

. The set of complexnumbers is denoted by

C

.For clarity, the expressions

z

-plane

and

w

-plane

will be used to mean

z

∈

C

and

w

∈

C

, respectively, when referring to diﬀerent copies of

C

.Two complex numbers,

z

1

= (

x

1

,y

1

) and

z

2

= (

x

2

,y

2

), are

equal

,written

z

1

=

z

2

, if and only if their real and imaginary parts are equal; thatis, if and only if

x

1

=

x

2

and

y

1

=

y

2

.

Definition

1.1.2

.

The

sum

of two complex numbers,

z

1

= (

x

1

,y

1

) and

z

2

= (

x

2

,y

2

), is deﬁned to be the complex number

z

=

z

1

+

z

2

= (

x

1

+

x

2

,y

1

+

y

2

)

.

The

commutativity

and the

associativity

of the addition,

z

1

+

z

2

=

z

2

+

z

1

,z

1

+ (

z

2

+

z

3

) = (

z

1

+

z

2

) +

z

3

,

follow from Deﬁnition 1.1.2. The complex number

zero

, 0 = (0

,

0), suchthat

z

+ 0 =

z

for all

z

∈

C

, is introduced in the same way as the realnumber 0 in the set of real numbers.

Definition

1.1.3

.

The

product

of two complex numbers,

z

1

= (

x

1

,y

1

)and

z

2

= (

x

2

,y

2

), is deﬁned to be the complex number

z

=

z

1

z

2

= (

x

1

x

2

−

y

1

y

2

,x

1

y

2

+

x

2

y

1

)

.

1

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