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Global tuberculosis control 2008

Global tuberculosis control 2008

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Published by: herylinot on May 16, 2008
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GlobalTuberculosisControl
2008
SURVEILLANCEPLANNINGFINANCING
 
WHO REPORT 2008
Global Tuberculosis Control
SURVEILLANCE, PLANNING, FINANCING
 
WHO Library Cataloguing-in-Publication DataGlobal tuberculosis control : surveillance, planning, financing : WHO report 2008.“WHO/HTM/TB/2008.393”.1.Tuberculosis, Pulmonary – prevention and control. 2.Tuberculosis, Multidrug-resistant – drug therapy. 3.Directlyobserved therapy. 4.Treatment outcome. 5.National health programs – organization and administration. 6.Financing,Health. 7.Statistics. I.World Health Organization.ISBN 978 92 4 156354 3 (NLM classification: WF 300)
© World Health Organization 2008
All rights reserved. Publications of the World Health Organization can be obtained from WHO Press, World Health Organization, 20 Avenue Appia,1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland (tel.: +41 22 791 3264; fax: +41 22 791 4857; e-mail: bookorders@who.int). Requests for permission to reproduce ortranslate WHO publications – whether for sale or for noncommercial distribution – should be addressed to WHO Press, at the above address (fax: +4122 791 4806; e-mail: permissions@who.int).The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the partof the World Health Organization concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitationof its frontiers or boundaries. Dotted lines on maps represent approximate border lines for which there may not yet be full agreement.The mention ofspecific companies or of certain manufacturers’ products does not imply that they are endorsed or recommended by the World Health Organization inpreference to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned. Errors and omissions excepted, the names of proprietary products are distinguishedby initial capital letters.All reasonable precautions have been taken by the World Health Organization to verify the information contained in this publication. However, thepublished material is being distributed without warranty of any kind, either expressed or implied. The responsibility for the interpretation and use ofthe material lies with the reader. In no event shall the World Health Organization be liable for damages arising from its use.Cover design by Chris Dye. The disintegration of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in 1991 had dire consequences for the control of tuberculosis.From 1992, the number of cases reported to WHO continued to decline in western and central European countries (lower series) but increased steeplyin the newly independent states (upper series). This resurgence was probably due to failures in tuberculosis control, but also to other biological, socialand economic factors influencing transmission of infection and susceptibility to disease (see Section 1.8.2). The cover image shows the bifurcation inEuropean case notifications layered on a colour-saturated image of stains used in sputum-smear microscopy, including carbol fuchsin and methyleneblue.Designed by minimum graphicsPrinted in Switzerland

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