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Introduction to CNC Machine

Introduction to CNC Machine

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Published by O.S.Ramanujam

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Categories:Topics, Art & Design
Published by: O.S.Ramanujam on Apr 14, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Introduction to CNC
 Avdelningenförmekaniskteknologiochverktygsmaskiner Lund Tekniska HögskolaDr. J. M. Zhou
What is CNC?
CNC means Computer Numerical Control.A form of programmable automation.Typical program containing coded alphanumeric data, such asG01 X120 Y200The data represent relative positions between a cutting tool andaworkpiece
SlidemovementDrive motor signalDrive motor Feedback signalMCUFeedbackdeviceNC part program
Why CNC machining?
Improved automationImprove the quality and accuracy of manufactured partsFlexibility to manufacture complex or otherwiseimpossible jobs2D and 3D contoursStabilize manufacturing costs
Typical CNC machine
Major component:-Drivers unit-Sliding system-Machine control unit (MCU)
Drives of CNC machine tool
Hydraulic actuator -high power machine toolStepping moto-small machine due to limited power and torqueDC moto-excellent speed regulation, high torque,most widely used
Friction behavior versus velocity(a)Sliding friction, conventional screw(b)Rolling friction, ball-bearing screwBall-bearing leadscrew
Ball-bearing leadscrew
Control of CNC Machine Tool
Schematic illustration of the major components of a numerical control machine tool.
Interpret a CNC programProduce coordinated pulses for multiple axes of motionActivate the series of commands in sequential order 
Open loop system 
 –Operates without verifying that the actual position is equal tothe specified position –Usually a stepping motor 
Closed loop control system 
 –Uses feedback measurement to verify that the actual position isequal to the specified location –Servo motor with a feedback loop
Two Basic Types of Control in CNCMeasurement of linear displacement
(a) Direct measurement of the linear displacement of a machine-tool worktable. (b)and (c) Indirect measurement methods.
Direct measurement A measuring scale secured to the slide or machining table andmeasuring value resolver (encoder) pick up information opticallyfrom measuring scale and converts this into electrical signal.Indirect measurementThe slide traverse is represented by rotation and a resolver records the rotational movement of a pulse disc. The controlsystem calculates the slide traverse movement from rotationpulse.
Encoder operating principles
LED light passes through a moving disc toproduce an electronic output from aphotodiode cellEncoders-Incremental encoder -Absolute encoder 
Incremental encoders
The most common incremental provide a digital pulse for eachresolvable position to be counted and referenced to a home position.These digital pulses are then fed into a high-speed counter modulelocated in a drive or controller interface.
Absolute encoders
Every position of an absolute device is unique, and these devices donot lose position when power is removed.
Incremental vs. absolute encodersTouch Probes
Touch probes used in machiningcenters for determining workpiece andtool positions and surfaces relative tothe machine table or column. (a)Touch probe determining the X-Y(horizontal) position of a workpiece,(b) determining the height of ahorizontal surface, (c) determining theplanar position of the surface of acutter (for instance, for cutter-diametercompensation), and (d) determiningthe length of a tool for tool-lengthoffset.
: Hitachi Seiki Co., Ltd.
Machinecoordinate systemWorkpiececoordinate systemG54ZXY
Motion control -point to point control
 ABWorkpieceis moved to a programmedlocation with no regard for path takento get to that locationOnce the move is completed, someprocessing action is accomplished bythe cutting tool –Examples: drilling or punching a holeMoving at maximum rate from point topoint.Accuracy of the destination is importantbut not the pathWorkpiece
Motion control -continuous path (CP)
Continuous simultaneous control of more than one axis, thuscontrolling path followed by tool relative to partControls both the displacement and the velocity.Use linear and circular interpolators.Interpolator: Digital differential analyzers (DDA).
 ABLinear interpolation ABCircular interpolation
NC machine rating
AccuracyRepeatabilitySpindle and axis motor horsepoweNumber of controlled axesDimension of workspaceFeatures of the machine and the controller.
Avg. errorProgrammed positionTest resultRepeatability
1. Manual part programming2. Computer-assisted part programming3. CAD/CAM-assisted part programmingCommon features:
 –Points, lines, and surfaces of the workpartmust bedefined relative to NC axis system –Movement of the cutting tool must be definedrelative to these part features
NC Part Programming Techniques
 A G-code program consists the following words:N, G, X, Y, Z, I, J, K, F, H, D, S, T, R, M
N -Sequence number (Used for line identification)G -Preparatory functionX -X axis designationY -Y axis designationZ -Z axis designationR -Radius designationF -FeedratedesignationS -Spindle speed designationH -Tool length offset designationD -Tool radius offset designationT -Tool DesignationM -Miscellaneous function (See below)
NC Words
Preparatory functions
: preparing MCU to perform a specific mode of operation –Use G codes followed by two digits –Interpolation is used, linear and circular  –Canned cycles
NC Words –G codes
N10 MSG(“Thisis my firstNC program”)N20 F200 S900 T1 D2 M3N30
X100 Y100N40
X150 Y120I=AC(45) J=AC(35)N60 X100N70 Y100N80 G0 X0 Y0N90 M30

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