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Philosophy 103

Philosophy 103

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Published by Gayle Abaya

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Published by: Gayle Abaya on Apr 15, 2010
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 Philosophy 103: Introduction to LogicThe Nature of Philosophy and Logic
 
 Abstract: The subjects of philosophy and logic are broadly characterized.
 I. What is Philosophy?A. The derivation of the word is from the Greek roots:1.
 philo
 ² 
love of, affinity for, liking of As in the words ...
  philander 
 ² 
to engage in love affairs frivolously
 philanthropy
 ² 
love mankind in general
 philately
 ² 
to collect postage stamps-
 phile
 ² 
one having a love for,
e.g.
anglophile
 philology
 ² 
having a liking for words2.
 sophia
 ² 
wisdomAs in the words ...
  sophist 
 ² 
one who loves knowledge
 sophomore
 ² 
one who thinks he knows everything
 sophisticated 
 ² 
one who is knowledgeableB. A suggested definition:
philosophy
is the systematic inquiry into the principles and presupposition of any field of inquiry.1. Psychologically, philosophy is an attitude, an approach, or a calling to answer, or to ask,or even to comment upon certain peculiar problems (
i.e.
, problems such as those usually inthe main branches of philosophy discussed below).2. Eventually we must despair of an abstract definition and turn to what philosophers do
 ² 
i.e
., the practice of philosophyII.
T
he Main Branches of Philosophy
are divided as to the nature of the questions asked in eacharea. The integrity of these divisions cannot be rigidly maintained.A.
Axiology
: the study of value; the investigation of its nature, criteria and metaphysicalstatus.1. Characterization of some features of the definition:a.
 N 
ature of value
: is value a fulfillment of desire, pleasure, a preference, or simply somekind of human interest? b.
Criteria of value
: is there no accounting for taste (
de gustibus non (est) disputandum)
or can rules and standards of values be set?
 
c.
tatus of value
: how are values related to scientific facts? What ultimate worth dohuman values have, if any? Is value dependent upon the presence of human beings?2. Axiology is sub-divided into ...a.
Et
hics
: the study of values in human behavior; the study of moral problems whichseeks to discover how one
ought 
to act, not how one does in fact act or how one thinksone should act. b
.
 Aes
t
he
t
ics
: the study of value in the arts--the study of the beauty, sublimity, and principles of taste, harmony, order, and pattern.B.
E
pis
t
emology
: the study of knowledge, in particular, the study of the nature, scope andlimits of human knowledge.1. The investigation of the origin, structure, methods, and validity of knowledge.2. As an example of orders of knowledge, consider the statement, "The earth is round." Thiscan be successively translated depending upon context as ...The earth is spherical.The earth is an oblate spheroid (
i.e.
, it's flattened at the poles).But what of the mountains, oceans, and so forth?Even if we surveyed exactly the shape, the process of surveying would itself measurablychange the shape of the earth
 ² 
e.g 
., footprints and indentations formed by our measuringinstruments. In practice, can the exact shape ever be actually known? (No, but eventhough we can probably never know the exact shape of the earth at any given moment, we
do
know the earth has an exact shape.)3. Consider two well-known epistemological problems: the first not solvable, the secondsolvable.a.Russell's Five Minute World Hypothesis: Suppose the earth were created five minutesago, complete with memory images, history books, geological records,
etc
. That is, at themoment of creation, the universe would have all the evidence that it was billions of yearsold already "packed in." How could it ever be known that the creation of the universe did
not 
occur five minutes ago? b. Suppose everything in the universe were to expand uniformly so that everything wasone hundred times larger. How would we ever know it?C.
O
n
t
ology
or 
Me
t
aphysics
: the study of what is "really" real. Metaphysics deals with the so-called first principles of the natural order or the ultimate generalizations available to the humanintellect.1. What kinds of things exist? How do they exist?a.
 E 
.g.
, ideas have no size, shape, color, etc. My idea of the Empire State Building is quite
 
as small as my idea of a book. Do ideas exist in the same manner that physical objectsexit? b.
 E 
.g.,
consider the truths of mathematics: How do geometric figures exist? Does a point(Euclid's "that which has no parts") exist apart from the idea of it?c. What is spirit made of? Or Soul? Or Matter? Or Space? Or a vacuum?III. To which of these branches of philosophy do you think logic belongs?A.
L
ogic
: the study of the methods and principles used in distinguishing correct from incorrectreasoning.B. Our knowledge is interrelated by logic. It forms the fabric of the sciences by ensuring theconsistency of the statements that compose them.C. Hence, logic is usually considered a subdivision of epistemology, although, of course, logicis used in all areas of philosophy.
M
ODUL
E:
Basic logic
T
U
T
ORI
A
L
 
L01
:
Wha
t
is logic?
L01.1
A preliminary defini
t
ion
The term "logic" came from the Greek word
logos
, which is sometimes translated as "sentence","discourse", "reason", "rule", and "ratio". Of course, these translations are not enough to help usunderstand the more specialized meaning of "logic" as it is used today.So what is logic? Briefly speaking, we might define logic as
the study of the principles of correct reasoning 
. This is a rough definition, because how logic should be properly defined is actuallyquite a controversial matter. However, for the purpose of this tour, we thought it would be usefulto give you at least some rough idea as to the subject matter that you will be studying. So this iswhat we shall try to do on this page.
L01.2
 
L
ogic is no
t
 
t
he psychology of reasoning
One thing you should note about this definition is that logic is concerned with the principles of 
correct 
reasoning. Studying the correct principles of reasoning is not the same as studying the
 psychology
of reasoning. Logic is the former discipline, and it tells us how we
ought 
to reason if we want to reason correctly. Whether people actually follow these rules of correct reasoning isan empirical matter, something that is not the concern of logic.The psychology of reasoning, on the other hand, is an empirical science. It tells us about theactual reasoning habits of people, including their mistakes. A psychologist studying reasoning

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