tatus of value
: how are values related to scientific facts? What ultimate worth dohuman values have, if any? Is value dependent upon the presence of human beings?2. Axiology is sub-divided into ...a.
: the study of values in human behavior; the study of moral problems whichseeks to discover how one
to act, not how one does in fact act or how one thinksone should act. b
: the study of value in the arts--the study of the beauty, sublimity, and principles of taste, harmony, order, and pattern.B.
: the study of knowledge, in particular, the study of the nature, scope andlimits of human knowledge.1. The investigation of the origin, structure, methods, and validity of knowledge.2. As an example of orders of knowledge, consider the statement, "The earth is round." Thiscan be successively translated depending upon context as ...The earth is spherical.The earth is an oblate spheroid (
, it's flattened at the poles).But what of the mountains, oceans, and so forth?Even if we surveyed exactly the shape, the process of surveying would itself measurablychange the shape of the earth
., footprints and indentations formed by our measuringinstruments. In practice, can the exact shape ever be actually known? (No, but eventhough we can probably never know the exact shape of the earth at any given moment, we
know the earth has an exact shape.)3. Consider two well-known epistemological problems: the first not solvable, the secondsolvable.a.Russell's Five Minute World Hypothesis: Suppose the earth were created five minutesago, complete with memory images, history books, geological records,
. That is, at themoment of creation, the universe would have all the evidence that it was billions of yearsold already "packed in." How could it ever be known that the creation of the universe did
occur five minutes ago? b. Suppose everything in the universe were to expand uniformly so that everything wasone hundred times larger. How would we ever know it?C.
: the study of what is "really" real. Metaphysics deals with the so-called first principles of the natural order or the ultimate generalizations available to the humanintellect.1. What kinds of things exist? How do they exist?a.
, ideas have no size, shape, color, etc. My idea of the Empire State Building is quite