The Geology of Indonesia/Java & Java Sea1
The Geology of Indonesia/
Java & JavaSea
Java, with a backbone comprising a subduction-induced volcano-plutonic arc, is consideredclassically as the southernmost leading edge of the continental Sunda Plate, overriding theoceanic Australia-Indian plate. In fact, the structural configuration is that of alternatinghighs and transverse depressions related to a more complex pattern, where discrete crustalblocks can be interpreted as pieces separated from the original monolithic craton. Twodynamic processes interact:
Collision of blocks in Pre-Tertiary times by closing of oceanicgaps is recorded or marked by roughly east-west ophiolitic belts (Ciletuh in West Java, Lok Ulo in Central Java) but the colliding pieces are not clearly identified.
Lateraldisplacement between blocks in Tertiary times is made by transcurrent faulting,components of large-scale strike-slip movement in response to the plate-convergenceprocess itself. Those mechanisms are part of extensional and convergent global geotectonicevents to which are related platform, fore-and back-arc basin sedimentation, andoccurrence of volcanism. Offshore North Java, some extensional, half-graben andgraben-like, transverse depressions, which are among the richest oil-provinces in thecountry (Sunda Basin, Arjuna Depression), locally extend to the land area where they mergeinto east-west back-arc basins. The Java Island and the adjacent Java Sea is divided into twomajor provinces West and East Java. The dividing line between these two areas is chosen asa meridian-line, roughly joining the Karimun-Jawa Islands to Semarang continuingsouthwards on land (Fig. 4.1). The south Java outer arc-basin is also included within thischapter.
4.1.1. TECTONIC SETTINGThe West Java region currently marks the transition between frontal subduction beneathSumatra, to the west. However, the region has been continuously active tectonically sincerifting in the Eocene. The Eocene rifting, as throughout SE Asia, was probably related tothe collision between India and Asia (e.g. Tapponier et al. 1986) and involved a significantinflux of coarse clastic sediments. The Oligocene-Recent history is more dominated bysubduction-related volcanism and limestone deposition. In general, West Java may besubdivided into the following tectonic provinces: (see Figure 4.2; modified after Martodjojo,1975; Lemigas, 1975, and Keetley et al, 1997)
Northern basinal area: A relatively stableplatform area, part of the Sundaland Continent, with N-S trending rift basins offshore andadjacent onshore, filled with Eocene-Oligocene non-marine clastics, overlain by Mioceneand younger shallow shelf deposits.
Bogor Trough foreland basins composed of Mioceneand younger sediments mostly deeper water sediment gravity flow facies. Young E-Wtrending anticlines formed during a recent episode of north-directed compressivestructuring;
Modern Volcanic Arc: Active andesitic volcanism related to subduction of Indian Oceanic Plate below Sundaland Continent (Gede-Panggrango, Salak, Halimun, etc., volcanoes).
Southern slope regional uplift: mainly Eocene-Miocene sediments, including volcanic rocks belonging to the Old Andesite Formation. Structurally complex, N-S trendingblock faults, E-W trending thrust faults and anticlines and possible wrench tectonism.South-West Java contains a number of sedimentary basins that formed within the axial