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Geology of Java_Wikibook

Geology of Java_Wikibook

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Published by: Sundar Raj on Apr 15, 2010
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The Geology of Indonesia/Java & Java Sea1
The Geology of Indonesia/
 
 Java & JavaSea
 Java, with a backbone comprising a subduction-induced volcano-plutonic arc, is consideredclassically as the southernmost leading edge of the continental Sunda Plate, overriding theoceanic Australia-Indian plate. In fact, the structural configuration is that of alternatinghighs and transverse depressions related to a more complex pattern, where discrete crustalblocks can be interpreted as pieces separated from the original monolithic craton. Twodynamic processes interact:
Collision of blocks in Pre-Tertiary times by closing of oceanicgaps is recorded or marked by roughly east-west ophiolitic belts (Ciletuh in West Java, Lok Ulo in Central Java) but the colliding pieces are not clearly identified.
Lateraldisplacement between blocks in Tertiary times is made by transcurrent faulting,components of large-scale strike-slip movement in response to the plate-convergenceprocess itself. Those mechanisms are part of extensional and convergent global geotectonicevents to which are related platform, fore-and back-arc basin sedimentation, andoccurrence of volcanism. Offshore North Java, some extensional, half-graben andgraben-like, transverse depressions, which are among the richest oil-provinces in thecountry (Sunda Basin, Arjuna Depression), locally extend to the land area where they mergeinto east-west back-arc basins. The Java Island and the adjacent Java Sea is divided into twomajor provinces West and East Java. The dividing line between these two areas is chosen asa meridian-line, roughly joining the Karimun-Jawa Islands to Semarang continuingsouthwards on land (Fig. 4.1). The south Java outer arc-basin is also included within thischapter.
4.1.WEST JAVA 
4.1.1. TECTONIC SETTINGThe West Java region currently marks the transition between frontal subduction beneathSumatra, to the west. However, the region has been continuously active tectonically sincerifting in the Eocene. The Eocene rifting, as throughout SE Asia, was probably related tothe collision between India and Asia (e.g. Tapponier et al. 1986) and involved a significantinflux of coarse clastic sediments. The Oligocene-Recent history is more dominated bysubduction-related volcanism and limestone deposition. In general, West Java may besubdivided into the following tectonic provinces: (see Figure 4.2; modified after Martodjojo,1975; Lemigas, 1975, and Keetley et al, 1997)
Northern basinal area: A relatively stableplatform area, part of the Sundaland Continent, with N-S trending rift basins offshore andadjacent onshore, filled with Eocene-Oligocene non-marine clastics, overlain by Mioceneand younger shallow shelf deposits.
Bogor Trough foreland basins composed of Mioceneand younger sediments mostly deeper water sediment gravity flow facies. Young E-Wtrending anticlines formed during a recent episode of north-directed compressivestructuring;
Modern Volcanic Arc: Active andesitic volcanism related to subduction of Indian Oceanic Plate below Sundaland Continent (Gede-Panggrango, Salak, Halimun, etc., volcanoes).
Southern slope regional uplift: mainly Eocene-Miocene sediments, including volcanic rocks belonging to the Old Andesite Formation. Structurally complex, N-S trendingblock faults, E-W trending thrust faults and anticlines and possible wrench tectonism.South-West Java contains a number of sedimentary basins that formed within the axial
 
The Geology of Indonesia/Java & Java Sea2ridge and in the area between the volcanic arc and submerged accretionary prismassociated with the northward subduction of the Indian Oceanic Plate.
Banten Block: Themost western part of Java Island which may be subdivided into Seribu Carbonate Platformin the north, Rangkas Bitung sedimentary sub-basin, and Bayah High in the south. In thewest there are minor low and highs so called Ujung Kulon and Honje High, and UjungKulon and West Malingping Low (Lemigas, 1975; Keetley et al, 1997).4.1.2 NORTHWESTERN BASINAL AREA 4.1.2.1 TECTONIC FRAMEWORK The Northern offshore and adjacent onshore basinal area comprises two major basins socalled North West Java Basin and Sunda-Asri Basinal area (Fig. 4.3). The northern part of this area is dominated by extensional faulting with very minimum compressionalstructuring. The basins were dominated by rift related fault which contain severaldepocentres. In the NW Java Basin the main depocentres are called the Arjuna Basin North,Central and South and the Jatibarang Sub-basin. The depocentres are dominantly filled withTertiary sequence with thickness in excess of 5,500 meters. The significant structuresobserved in the northern basinal area consist of various type of high trend area associatedwith faulted anticline and horst block, folding on the downthrown side of the major faults,keystone folding and drape over basement highs. Rotational fault blocks were also observedin several areas. The compressional structuring were only observed in the early NW-SE riftfaults. These faults were reactivated during Oligocene time forming several series of downthrown structure associated with transpresional faulting in the Sunda area. Althoughthe Northwest Java basin area is currently positioned in a back arc setting, the West JavaSea rift systems did not form as back-arc basins. Extension direction fault patterns andbasin orientation of the Northwest Java basins suggest that the sub-basinal areas arepull-apart basins at the southern terminus of a large, regional, dextral strike-slip system;i.e. the Malacca and Semangko fault zones propagating down to the west flank of the Sundacraton. Through both Eocene-Oligocene rift phases, the primary extension directions wereNE-SW to E-W. Two observations support the interpretations that these basins are notback-arc related; 1) the extension direction for the WJS rifts is nearly perpendicular to thepresent subduction zone, 2) a thick continental crust is involved (Hamilton, 1979). The NW Java depression is asymmetrical, with its deepest Arjuna Sub-basin lies at the foot of the Arjuna Plateau, separated by a major N-S trending fault. The basin opens southward intothe onshore Ciputat, Pasir Putih and Jatibarang Sub-basins, separated by theRengasdengklok and Kandanghaur
Gantar Highs, respectively. The sub-basins arecharacterised by the presence of alternating highs and lows bounded by extensionaldeep-seated faults which were active during sedimentation. The Jatibarang Sub-basin isbounded by the Kandanghaur - Gantar- horst-block to the west, and the Cirebon fault, eastand north-eastwards. This major growth-fault is responsible for an important accumulationof Tertiary rocks including the Jatibarang volcanics, in the Jatibarang Sub-basin. The VeraSub-basin is a deep Mesozoic and Tertiary depression NE of Arjuna Sub-basin. Thissub-basin is bounded by some major faults, especially to the south. The structuresorientation is SW and SSW, similar to the direction of the Billiton Basin where Mesozoic (?)sediments are also known. The Sunda-Asri basinal area consists of Sunda and Asri basin.This structural element is the westernmost basin of the northern basinal area of West Java.The Sunda Basin is a roughly northsouth depression with its main depocenter, the Seribuhalf graben, at its eastern edge, separated from the Seribu platform by steep flexures andfaults. To the west, the basin is bounded by the Lampung High, to the south by the Honje
 
The Geology of Indonesia/Java & Java Sea3High and to the north the Xenia arch separates the Sunda Basin from the Asri Basin. TheSunda Basin is the deepest basin in the northern basinal area of Java, where the basementis more than 3.8 second TWT, in the downthrown block of the Sunda/Seribu fault. A seriesof normal faults dissect the area in small horst and graben features. The Asri Basin, locatedto the northeast of the Sunda Basin, is the second deep basin in the region with basementas deep as 3.0 sec. TWT. It is limited from the Sunda platform eastwards by a major normalfault. To the northwards and westwards, it is bordered by steep gradients and is dissectedby normal faults.4.1.2.2 STRATIGRAPHY The sediments of the West Java Sea basins are grouped into two very distinct sedimentaryunits which are the rift related sediment fills dominated by nonmarine / continentalsedimentary sequences and the post-rift (sag) basin fills dominated by marginal marine andmarine sedimentary sequences. In the following discussion, the sediment sequences aredivided into five different tectonostratigraphic units based on their tectonic origins (Koharet al, 1996).4.1.2.2.1 BasementThe sedimentary sequence of the North West Java Sea basins rests on a multi-complexes of a Pre-Tertiary basement representing the continental crest of the Sundaland. The basementassemblage (Fig. 4.4) is composed of metamorphic and igneous rocks primarily of Cretaceous and old ages and subordinate limestones and clastic sediments of possible EarlyTertiary age. This melange of low-grade meta-sedimentary, igneous, and meta-igneousrocks is the result of subduction-related accretionary processes associated with theMeratus Suture (Fig. 4.1) which was active during the Cretaceous and Paleocene.Metamorphic grade varies widely throughout the sub-basins indurated limestones to lowgrade metamorphic philites. Based on basement dating, regional metamorphism endedduring the Late Cretaceous, while deformation, uplift, erosion and cooling continued intothe Paleocene. Late Cretaceous to Paleogene calc-alkalic magmatism occurred throughoutonshore and offshore Java due to normal subduction related processes. Andesiticmagmatism continued into the early Eocene. Another important igneous event in the West Java Basin, was a Pliocene phase of alkali basalt magmatism which is preserved as eithersills or dikes or as volcanic edifices. Based upon the deep going, mostly extensional-faultseries, the basinal area could be divided into alternating graben-like sub-basin and positiveridge or platforms. Figure 4.3 displays the basin configuration of the West Java Sea basinalarea.4.1.2.2.2. Early Rift Fill (Paleocene ?/Eocene to Early Oligocene)The early rift fills include the Banuwati Formation in the Sunda Basin and the JatibarangFormation in the Arjuna Sub-basin. Continental and lacustrine systems dominated thesesequences. The early rift fills are typically composed of immature clastics ranging fromalluvial fanglomerate and conglomeratic sandstones to fluviatile sandstones and shales,culminated by anoxic lacustrine shales deposition in the Sunda Basin. Further east, in the Arjuna Sub-basin, the sequence is represented by alternating volcanic clastics andlacustrine clastics composed of andesitic volcaniclastics flow and tuff mixed with basementderived sediments (Gresko et. al.,1995). The early rift fills overlie basement and present inmost of the deepest part of the Sunda, Asri and Arjuna Sub-basins. The alluvial fan facieswhich composed mainly of conglomerates, coarse to medium grained sandstones associatedwith basin margin fault. Its thickness ranges from 200 m to 30 m in a distance of 3 miles

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